RELS 191- Mid Term

RELS 191- Mid Term - RELS 191-Religion in America Midterm...

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RELS 191-Religion in America Midterm Exam #1 10/18/2009 Catholicism's Seven Sacraments (6) A Sacrament, in any religion is a sacred sign, such as a person, place, object, or action that is regarded as holy (Albanese 61). Another way Albanese puts it, is a sacrament is where the divine world meets the human world, or a bridge from world to the other. She goes back to her use of the ordinary and extraordinary realities, and how they are both apparent in sacraments, with “the one revealing the other even as it disguises it in ordinariness” (61). In Catholic sacramentalism, the material world closely reflects the spiritual one, and it can enclose and disclose the sacred reality that transcends the world (62). These holy sacraments get their roots from Catholicism's Jewish past combined with Greek philosophy and Greco-Roman religion from the mediterranean region where Christianity reached. “By medieval times, popular Christian belief held to seven sacraments-baptism, confirmation, penance, eucharist, holy order(s), matrimony, and extreme unction” (62). Out of these, five assisted with crossing specific boundaries of life, and the other two (Penance & Eucharist) were assistance in living daily life (lecture). Baptism in the name of the holy trinity made an individual part of the communion of saints, which is the community of Christians on earth and in heaven. Matrimony is the most obvious in that it is marriage between man and women. Confirmation is done by anointing an individual as a sign of their spiritual maturation. Extreme unction, or anointing of the sick, was used to anoint a person with a serious illness, usually with the use of blessed oils. Holy order is a series of steps towards priesthood for young men. “Penance demanded the confession of sins and a sincere act of sorrow spoken by the penitent to a priest, who forgave the sinner in the name of the Christian Trinity” (62). The eucharist being the last, and maybe the most important sacrament of them all, is the metaphorical eating and drinking of Jesus' body and blood. This tradition is based upon the Last Supper and Jesus' sacrifice on the cross for our sins. It serves as a constant spiritual reminder of Jesus' sacrifice. WC: 355
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Conservative Judaism (4) Conservative Judaism strived to find a middle ground between Reform Judaism and Orthodox Judaism. “As Gerson Cohen explains, the Conservative movement emerged among Jews in New York City in the late nineteenth century as an affirmation of the dynamic, historical nature of God's covenant relationship with the Jewish people” (Porterfield, 138). In 1883, at the first graduation banquet of the Hebrew Union College, unkosher food was served, and a number of Rabbis were outraged. Although this incident is probably not the only reason for the founding of Conservative Judaism, it surely sped things up in terms of breaking from the liberal reform judaism that was ever so strong. Conservative Judaism stresses intellectual freedom and creativity for all humans. The Jewish Theological Seminary
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course HUM 191 at San Jose State.

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RELS 191- Mid Term - RELS 191-Religion in America Midterm...

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