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Unformatted text preview: Understanding Interpersonal and Organizational Communication 1 Organizational Communication Upward Communication Serial communication Attitude survey Suggestion box Liaison MUM effect opendoor policy 2 Organizational Communication Downward Communication Meetings Memo Phone call Email Bulletin board Employee handbook Intranet
3 Organizational Communication Horizontal Communication Grapevine singlestrand pattern gossip pattern probability pattern cluster pattern Rumor 4 Problem Area I Intended Message Versus Message Sent Think about what you want to communicate Practice what you want to communicate Learn better communication skills
5 Problem Area II Message Sent Versus Message Received Actual words used Communication channel Noise Nonverbal cues Paralanguage Artifacts Amount of information 6 Actual Words Used The word "fine" to describe jewelry to describe the weather to describe food or sex female girl babe woman The applicant was a: 7 Avoid such words as: as soon as possible I'll be back soon I'll be out for a while Use concrete words and ask how the other person might interpret your message Why not be specific? Avoid confrontation "test the water" Avoid being the bad guy (MUM effect)
8 Gender Differences in Communication
(Tannen, 1986 & 1990) Men Talk about major events Tell the main point Are more direct Use "uhhuh" to agree Are comfortable with silence Concentrate on the words spoken Sidetrack unpleasant topics Women Talk about daily life Provide details Are more indirect Use "uhhuh" to listen Are less comfortable with silence Concentrate on nonverbal cues and paralanguage Focus on unpleasant topics 9 Communication Channels Oral inperson wordofmouth answering machine Nonverbal Written personal letter/memo general letter/memo email
10 Noise Actual noise Appropriateness of the channel Bias Feelings about the person communicating Mood Perceived motives
11 Nonverbal Cues Are ambiguous Those that aren't, are called emblems Gender and cultural differences are common Nonverbal cues are thought to be 80% of the message received 12 Nonverbal Cues Include Eye contact Expressions Microexpressions Posture Arm and leg use Motion Touching 13 Use of Space Intimacy zone 0 to 18 inches close relationships Personal distance zone 18 inches to 4 feet friends and acquaintances Social distance zone 4 to 12 feet business contacts and strangers Public distance zone 12 to 25 feet 14 Use of Time Being late Leaving a meeting early Setting aside time for a meeting Multitasking (working while talking) 15 Basic Assumptions About Nonverbal Cues & Paralanguage People are different in their use of nonverbal cues and paralanguage Standard differences among people reveal information about the person Changes in a person's style reveal new messages 16 Paralanguage Rate of speech Loudness Intonation Amount of talking Voice pitch Pauses 17 The Importance of Inflection I did not say Bill stole your car. I did not say Bill store your car. I did not say Bill stole your car. I did not say Bill stole your car. I did not say Bill stole your car. I did not say Bill stole your car. I did not say Bill stole your car.
18 Artifacts Our office dcor desk placement clothing accessories hair styles tattoos What we wear The car we drive The house we live in 19 The Amount of Information
When we have too much information, we tend to: Assimilate Sharpen Level 20 Reactions to Information Overload Omission Error Queuing Escape Use of a gatekeeper Use of multiple channels The Amount of Information 21 Problem Area III Message Received Versus Message Interpreted Listening Skills Listening Style Emotional State Cognitive Ability Bias 22 The Importance of Listening 70% of a manager's job is spent communicating Of that time 9% is spent writing 16% is spent reading 30% is spent speaking 45% is spent listening 23 Listening Skills Stop talking and listen Show the speaker Keep an open mind Use appropriate nonverbal you want to listen cues Empathize with the Let the other person finish speaker speaking Don't ask excessive Try to understand what the questions other person means Remove distractions
24 Listening Styles Leisure Inclusive Stylistic Technical Empathic Nonconforming (Geier & Downey, 1980) 25 Other Factors Emotional State Anger Fear Anxiety Excitement Love Bias Cognitive Ability Drugs and Alcohol
26 Writing is easiest to read when it: has short sentences uses simple rather than complicated words uses common rather than unusual words 27 ...
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