Unformatted text preview: Issues in Multiculturalism Culture Ethnocentricism and Culture Shock American Values Multicultural Education and Multicultural Currriculum Learner Involvement Culture A blueprint for social existence that controls thought, actions, speech patterns, and emotional responses. Misunderstandings occur among people belonging to different cultural groups because culturally based perceptions shape our view of life. Surface and Deep Culture Surface: food, holidays, arts, folklore, history, & personalities (superficial values) Deep: ceremonies and their values, marriage, death, ethics, family ties, gestures, education, rewards, thank you, space and proxemics, taboos, concept of time, and values (underlying value and belief system) Stereotyping vs. Sociotyping Stereotyping: attributing false and exaggerated characteristics of a group to an individual. Ethnocentricism Being ethnocentric is presuming that one's culture, race, ways of life and nations form the center of the world American Values Personal control over one's life Change is good. Time is an important factor. All are equal. Privacy is honored. Self-promotion. Pay as you enjoy materialism Informality Directness and frankness Culture shock - symptoms A feeling of helplessness Dependence on group members Anger, impatience, and irritability Depression, loss of sleep, and loss of appetite Longing to be back at home Multicultural Education ESL teaching is about multicultural education. Making learners to become aware of themselves as members of a cultural group Encouraging individuals to maintain their lifestyles and beliefs Making learners to appreciate other cultures Making native speakers to appreciate other cultures. Respecting learners' learning styles. Respecting learners' points of view. Multicultural Curriculum Creating an atmosphere of cultural diversity Instilling in learners a positive attitude towards everybody Having a class of equal opportunity Establishing a non-threatening atmosphere Encouraging students to become culturally aware of themselves. Learner involvement in multicultural curriculum Motivate cross-cultural interaction Make learners understand that success is possible in language learning. Cross-cultural Interaction Teaching of language is not mere teaching of grammar. Teaching of language as communication involves teaching of culturally determined conversational rules also. Teaching of language is teaching learners to be communicatively competent Linguistic competence Sociolinguistic competence Discourse competence Strategic competence Sociolinguistic competence Includes cultural competence also. Schumann: Acculturation is the most effective process of learning a language. Cross-cultural interaction is not without its bumps: Misunderstandings do occur in cross-cultural interaction :
because Ethnocentric attitude of speakers is a reality. Cultural bumps Culturally determined conversational structure Culturally determined classroom behavior Visible versus hidden curriculum Individualism versus high considerateness High context communication versus low context communication Participation structures Indirectness versus directness speech Proxemics including eye-contact and gestures ...
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- Multicultural Education, cross-cultural interaction, competence sociolinguistic competence, Values Multicultural Education, competence Strategic competence