ISSA-Certified-Personal-Trainer-Main-Course-Textbook.pdf - Ninth Edition 1015 Mark Avenue \u2022 Carpinteria CA 93013 1.800.892.4772 \u2022

ISSA-Certified-Personal-Trainer-Main-Course-Textbook.pdf -...

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Unformatted text preview: Ninth Edition 1015 Mark Avenue • Carpinteria, CA 93013 1.800.892.4772 • 1.805.745.8111 (international) ISSAonline.com Fitness: The Complete Guide Course Textbook for CERTIFIED FITNESS TRAINER International Sports Sciences Association 800.892.4772 • ISSAonline.com Fitness: The Complete Guide Frederick C. Hatfield, PhD Ninth Edition Course Textbook for CERTIFIED FITNESS TRAINER Frederick C. Hatfield, PhD Fitness The Complete Guide Contributors Frederick C. Hatfield, PhD Sal Arria, DC, MSS Patrick S. Gamboa, MBA, MSS Josh Bryant, MS, MFS Paul O. Davis, PhD, FASCM Michael Yessis, PhD James A. Peterson, PhD Charles Staley, BS, MSS John Berardi, PhD Brian St. Pierre, MS, RD Ryan Andrews, MS, MA, RD Karl Knopf, EdD Thomas D. Fahey, EdD Darin Rell, BS, CFT, AHA, BLS Instructor Reviewers Cameron Baker, BS, MFS Josh Bryant, MS, MFS Editors Peter A. Balaskas Joanna Hatzopoulos Graphics and Illustration Karen Williams, Senior Artist, Illustrator Alex Gundersen, Illustrator Samantha Hird, Photography (Flexibility) Fitness: The Complete Guide (Edition 9.0) Official course text for: International Sports Sciences Association’s Certified Fitness Trainer Program 10 9 8 Copyright © 2019 TXu1-157-866 International Sports Sciences Association. Published by the International Sports Sciences Association, Carpinteria, CA 93013. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including xerography, photocopying, and recording, or in any information storage and retrieval system without the written permission of the publisher. Direct copyright, permissions, reproduction, and publishing inquiries to: International Sports Sciences Association, 1015 Mark Avenue, Carpinteria, CA 93013 1.800.892.4772 • 1.805.745.8111 (local) • 1.805.745.8119 (fax) Disclaimer of Warranty This text is informational only. The data and information contained herein are based upon information from various published and unpublished sources that represents training, health, and nutrition literature and practice summarized by the author and publisher. The publisher of this text makes no warranties, expressed or implied, regarding the currency, completeness, or scientific accuracy of this information, nor does it warrant the fitness of the information for any particular purpose. The information is not intended for use in connection with the sale of any product. Any claims or presentations regarding any specific products or brand names are strictly the responsibility of the product owners or manufacturers. This summary of information from unpublished sources, books, research journals, and articles is not intended to replace the advice or attention of health care professionals. It is not intended to direct their behavior or replace their independent professional judgment. If you have a problem or concern with your health, or before you embark on any health, fitness, or sports training programs, seek clearance and guidance from a qualified health care professional. About the Author | iii ABOUT THE AUTHOR Frederick C. Hatfield, MSS, PhD, is co-founder and president of the ISSA. Dr. Hatfield, (aka “Dr. Squat”) won the World Championship three times in the sport of powerlifting and performed a competitive squat with 1014 pounds at a body weight of 255 pounds (more weight than anyone in history had ever lifted in competition). Dr. Hatfield’s former positions include an assistant professorship at the University of Wisconsin (Madison) and senior vice president and director of research and development for Weider Health and Fitness, Incorporated. Dr. Hatfield was honored by Southern Connecticut State University when they presented him with the 1991 Alumni Citation Award. He has written over 60 books (including several best-sellers) and hundreds of articles in the general areas of sports training, fitness, bodybuilding, and performance nutrition. He has been coach and training consultant for several world-ranked and professional athletes, sports governing bodies, and professional teams worldwide. Dr. Hatfield qualified for the 1998 World Championships in Olympic Lifting and competed in the Masters Division. International Sports Sciences Association TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction, p. 1 SECTION ONE ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, p. 9 1 Metabolism, p. 11 2 Basic Anatomy and Physiology, p. 29 3 Musculoskeletal Anatomy and Physiology, p. 71 SECTION TWO KINESIOLOGY AND BIOMECHANICS, p. 113 4 Kinesiology of Exercise, p. 115 5 Biomechanics of Exercise, p. 131 6 Musculoskeletal Deviations, p. 149 7 Muscle Mechanics, p. 161 SECTION THREE HEALTH AND PHYSICAL FITNESS, p. 181 8 Strength, p. 183 9 Cardiovascular Training, p. 301 10 Flexibility Training, p. 333 11 Body Composition, p. 359 SECTION FOUR PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT, p. 381 12 Drawing-In Phase, p. 383 13 Basic Assessment of Fitness Participants, p. 393 14 Training Principles, p. 415 15 Periodization, p. 459 16 Determining Training Loads, p. 477 SECTION FIVE NUTRITION, p. 495 17 The Big Picture of Nutrition, p. 497 18 Nutritional Physiology, p. 517 19 Nutritional Science, p. 545 SECTION SIX FITNESS FOR ALL Topics in Fitness for Special Populations, p. 615 21 Exercise and Older Adults, p. 617 22 Exercise and Adaptive Fitness, p. 627 23 Exercise and Our Youth, p. 635 24 Exercise and Hypertension, p. 641 25 Exercise and Diabetes, p. 647 26 Exercise and Arthritis, p. 653 27 Exercise and Coronary Heart Disease, p. 659 28 Exercise and Pregnancy, p. 665 29 Exercise and Asthma, p. 671 30 Sports Medicine in the Trenches, p. 677 31 Basic First Aid, p. 715 References, p. 725 Glossary, p. 737 Index, p. 759 20 Nutritional Coaching, p. 575 International Sports Sciences Association TOPICS COVERED IN THIS UNIT Personal Training Who Wants Personal Training? What is a Personal Trainer? Why is Personal Training Necessary? What Should a Personal Trainer Know? ISSA Code of Ethics and Standards Principles and Purpose Academic Standards Professional Standards INTRODUCTION THE WHO, WHAT, WHY, AND HOW OF PERSONAL TRAINING 2 | Introduction U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt PERSONAL TRAINING Today’s fitness industry is a multibillion-dollar business. Personal training is its ever-growing offspring. The roots of personal training are difficult to pinpoint. Some credit its origin to be in the 1950s (when personal trainers were first actively certified), although one could contend that personal training dates back to the beginning of recorded history. While the profession and terminology associated with personal training were not yet in existence, the concept of optimal health (which is the motivation behind the profession) was already being touted by ancient philosophers. Around 400 BC, Hippocrates wrote this: “Eating alone will not keep a man well; he must also take exercise. For food and exercise, while possessing opposite qualities, yet work together to produce health … and it is necessary, as it appears, to discern the power of various exercises, both natural exercises and artificial, to know which of them tends to increase flesh and which to lessen it; and not only this, but also to proportion exercise to bulk of food, to the constitution of the patient, to the age of the individual.” Fitness: The Complete Guide Of all of the leaders of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt was one of the strongest presidents, both physically and mentally. However, he did not start that way. As a child, Roosevelt was small for his age and quite sickly. He had debilitating asthma, had poor eyesight, and was extremely thin. When he was 12 years old, his father told him, “You have the mind, but you have not the body, and without the help of the body, the mind cannot go as far as it should. You must make the body.”(Morris, 1979). Roosevelt began spending every day building his body as well as his mind. He worked out with weights, hiked, hunted, rowed, and boxed. History can attest: Theodore Roosevelt’s strength in mind and body contributed to his strength as the leader of his nation. Another great leader was U.S. President John Kennedy. Like Roosevelt, Kennedy acknowledged the benefits of physical activity for optimal health. He once said, “Physical fitness is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity.” The Who, What, Why, and How of Personal Training | 3 WHO WANTS PERSONAL TRAINING? WHAT IS A PERSONAL TRAINER? According to the International Health, Racquet & Sports Club Association and American Sports Data (IHRSA/ ASD) Health Club Trend Report, since 1998, the number of Americans belonging to health clubs has grown 45 percent (about 14 million members). Health club memberships among children under 18 years of age have jumped by 187 percent since 1987. The number of clients considering personal training services continues to grow. According to IHRSA’s Annual Health Club Consumer Study (2014), 52.9 million Americans aged 6 years and older are members of health clubs. Over 12 percent of these members pay for the services of a personal trainer and over 6 million health club members alone paid for a personal trainer this past year. In-home sessions, park boot camp sessions, and other non traditional training sessions were not included in gym data. The profession of personal training is a relatively new field that continues to expand its boundaries and redefine itself. Prior to the early 1980s, no minimal requirements existed to qualify or identify a person as a personal trainer. Those engaged in training were still an esoteric group. Many learned about training solely through personal experiences in the gym. Recognizing the need for standardization and credibility, Dr. Sal Arria and Dr. Fred Hatfield pioneered a program of personal fitness training that merged gym experience with practical and applied sciences. Here are some statistics from the report: • Three out of five clients are women. • Clients report an average of 18 sessions with a trainer. • Trainers charge between $15 and $100 per hour—an average of $50 per hour. • Average sessions used in 12 months are as follows: Sessions Percentage 1–6 47% 7–11 12% 12–24 11% 8% 25–49 50 + 11% Not Reported • 11% Number of sessions clients used by age are as follows: Age Range Sessions 6–11 22 12–17 26 18–34 15 35–54 14 55 + 24 These statistics support the growing trend and need for personal training services. While those 4 million people who purchased personal training services are sold on the need for personal training, let’s explore what exactly is a personal trainer? Today, a personal fitness trainer can be defined as a person who educates and trains clients in the performance of safe and appropriate exercises in order to effectively lead them to optimal health. Personal trainers can be self-employed or work in health clubs, physicians’ offices, physical therapy clinics, wellness centers, hospitals, rehabilitation facilities, and private studios. WHY IS PERSONAL TRAINING NECESSARY? The U.S. Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity and Health supports the role of physical activity for good health and disease prevention. The National Institutes of Health released a consensus statement on the importance of physical activity for cardiovascular health (US Department of Health and Human Services,). In addition, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched the Healthy People Initiative, which lists physical activity, fitness, and nutrition at the top of twenty-two priority areas. Finally, the American Heart Association included physical inactivity and low fitness levels as primary risk factors, along with smoking, hypertension, and high cholesterol. Unfortunately, although the resounding benefits of physical activity and fitness are touted and reported, the United States is currently undergoing an obesity epidemic. In the United States, 25 to 35 percent of people remain sedentary. To make matters worse, federal resources and funds for physical activity have lagged far behind other aspects of health. Health and physical education in schools are low priorities, and when districts are looking to trim their budgets, health and physical education programs are often the first to be cut. International Sports Sciences Association 4 | Introduction Consider the following: Each year in the United States, people spend $2.5 trillion on health care. This meteoric figure translates into an expenditure of almost $7,000 for each member of the U.S. population. Regrettably, this financial commitment has neither shown signs of abating nor has it produced satisfactory results with regard to treating a wide variety of chronic health problems. Attempts to identify the factors that have been major contributions to this virtual epidemic of medical problems have produced a litany of probable reasons why such a large number of individuals are so apparently unhealthy, including poor eating habits, sedentary lifestyle, stress, and poor health habits (e.g., smoking). At the same time, a number of studies have been undertaken to identify what, if anything, can be done to diminish either the number or the severity of medical problems affecting the public. These studies have provided considerable evidence that exercise has substantial medicinal benefits for people of all ages. Two of the most widely publicized efforts to investigate the possible relationship between exercise and disease were longitudinal studies, each of which involved more than 10,000 subjects. In a renowned study of 17,000 Harvard graduates, Ralph Paffenbarger, MD, found that men who expended approximately 300 calories a day (the equivalent of walking briskly for 45 minutes) reduced their death rates from all causes by an extraordinary 28 percent and lived an average of more than 2 years longer than their sedentary classmates. Another study conducted by Steven Blair, PED, of the Institute of Aerobics Research in Dallas documented the fact that a relatively modest amount of exercise has a significant effect on the mortality rate of both men and women. The higher the fitness level, the lower the death rate (after the data were adjusted for age differences between subjects in this 8-year investigation of 13,344 individuals). An analysis of the extensive data yielded by both studies suggests one inescapable conclusion: Exercise is medicine! Accepting the premise that regular exercise can play a key role in reducing your risk of medical problems and in decreasing your ultimate costs for health care is critical. Despite the vast number of individuals who lead a sedentary lifestyle, the need for and the value of exercising on a regular basis is an irrefutable fact of life (and death). For example, after a detailed review of the results of his long-term investigation, Dr. Paffenbarger concluded that not exercising had the equivalent impact on a person’s health as smoking one and a half packs of cigarettes a Fitness: The Complete Guide day. Fortunately, with few exceptions, most people are too sensible to ever consider ravaging their health by smoking excessively. Unfortunately, many of these same people fail to recognize the extraordinary benefits of exercise in the prevention of medical problems. Any listing of the medical problems and health-related conditions that can be at least partially treated and controlled by exercise would be extensive. Among the most significant of these health concerns and the manner in which exercise is thought to help alleviate each condition are the following: • Allergies. Exercise is one of the body’s most efficient ways to control nasal congestion (and the accompanying discomfort of restricted nasal blood flow). • Angina. Regular aerobic exercise dilates vessels, increasing blood flow — thereby improving the body’s ability to extract oxygen from the bloodstream. • Anxiety. Exercise triggers the release of mood-altering chemicals in the brain. • Arthritis. By forcing a skeletal joint to move, exercise induces the manufacture of synovial fluid, helps to distribute it over the cartilage, and forces it to circulate throughout the joint space. • Back pain. Exercise helps to strengthen the abdominal muscles,the lower back extensor muscles, and the hamstring muscles. • Bursitis and tendinitis. Exercise can strengthen the tendons — enabling them to handle greater loads without being injured. • Cancer. Exercise helps maintain ideal bodyweight and helps keep body fat to a minimum. • Carpal tunnel syndrome. Exercise helps build up the muscles in the wrists and forearms, thereby reducing the stress on arms, elbows, and hands. • Cholesterol. Exercise helps to raise HDL (highdensity lipoprotein—the “good” cholesterol) levels in the blood and lower LDL (low-density lipoprotein—the undesirable cholesterol) levels. • Constipation. Exercise helps strengthen the abdominal muscles, thereby making it easier to pass a stool. • Depression. Exercise helps speed metabolism and deliver more oxygen to the brain; the improved level of circulation in the brain tends to enhance mood. The Who, What, Why, and How of Personal Training | 5 • Diabetes. Exercise helps lower blood sugar levels, strengthen the skeletal muscles and heart, improve circulation, and reduce stress. • Fatigue. Exercise can help alleviate the fatiguecausing effects of stress, poor circulation and blood oxygenation, bad posture, and poor breathing habits. • • • • • • Intermittent claudication. Claudication is pain caused by too little blood flow to the extremities. Exercise helps improve peripheral circulation and increases pain tolerance. • Glaucoma. Exercise helps relieve intraocular hypertension (the pressure buildup on the eyeball that heralds the onset of glaucoma). Knee problems. Exercise helps strengthen the structures attendant to the knee (muscles, tendons, and ligaments) thereby facilitating the ability of the knee to withstand stress. • Headaches. Exercise helps force the brain to secrete more of the body’s opiate-like, paindampening chemicals (e.g., endorphins and enkephalins). Lung disease. Exercise helps strengthen the muscles associated with breathing and helps boost the oxygen level in the blood. • Memory problems. Exercise helps to improve cognitive ability by increasing the blood and oxygen flow to the brain. • Menstrual problems and PMS. Exercise helps to control the hormonal imbalances often associated with PMS by increasing the release of beta-endorphins. • Osteoporosis. Exercise promotes bone density, thereby lowering an individual’s risk of experiencing a bone fracture. • Overweight problems. Exercise is an appetite suppressant. It also increases metabolic rate, burns fat, increases lean muscle mass, and improves self-esteem—all factors that contribute to healthy weight. • Varicose veins. Exercise can help control the level of discomfort caused by existing varicose veins and help prevent additional varicose veins. Heart disease. Exercise helps promote many changes that collectively lower the risk of heart disease—a decrease in body fat, a decrease in LDL cholesterol, an increase in the efficiency of the heart and lungs, a decrease in blood pressure, and a lowered heart rate. High blood pressure. Exercise reduces the level of stress-related chemicals in the bloodstream that constrict arteries and veins, increases the release of endorphins, raises the level of HDL in the bloodstream, lowers resting heart rate (over time), improves the responsiveness of blood vessels (over time), and helps reduce blood pressure through maintenance of body weight. Insomnia. Exercise helps reduce muscular tension and stress. International Sports Sciences Association 6 | Introduction Are the positive effects that result from exercising regularly worth the required effort? Absolutely. Should you make exercise an integral part of your daily regimen? Of course, you should. In countless ways, your life may depend on it. 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