# Kellogg_c9 - Problem Solving Kellogg (Chapter 9) Cognition...

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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 9) Problem Solving Kellogg (Chapter 9)

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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 9) Defining a problem There is a problem when a goal is not immediately able to be achieved (e.g., Problem-solving is the identification and selection of solutions to the problem.
Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 9) Problem Solving Directed and Undirected Thinking –Directed: Goal-oriented and rational –Undirected: Meanders (day dreams, dreaming, drifting thoughts, etc.) Well-Defined and Ill-Defined Problems

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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 9) Tower Of Hanoi (well-defined problem) Well-Defined Problem Goal State (clear) Initial State (clear) Subgoals (problem can be broken down) Problem Space (all possible legal moves) Move from start state to end state by moving one disk at a time, and never placing a smaller disk on a larger disk. Goal State Initial State
Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 9) Problem Space • all possible legal moves • Each legal move from the initial state to some intermediate state is specifically defined by an OPERATOR . Solve for x :

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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 9) Tower Of Hanoi (the problem space) Well-Defined Problem Goal State, Initial State, Subgoals, Problem Space all possible legal moves (operator actions) Goal State
Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 9) Means-End analysis heuristic • Identify difference between current & goal state. • Create sub-goal & select operator that achieves it. • If operator cannot be applied then use means-end-analysis recursively (i.e. repetitively) to remove blocking conditions.

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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 9) Missionaries and Cannibals Your task is to take 3 missionaries and 3 cannibals across the river. The boat holds 2. The cannibals must never outnumber the missionaries (or they will eat them). start finish
Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 9) Ill-Defined Problems • How do you advance in your chosen career? – What is the goal state ? – What is your current state (initial state) – What are the intermediate goals (subgoal decomposition) (?) – What are all possible operations that could be employed (i.e., what is the problem space?)

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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 9) Where we are at Well-defined problems • Your car doesn’t start in the morning and you want to try and find out what’s wrong with it • You want to beat an opponent at chess • You want to find a street in an unfamiliar city Ill-defined problems • You want to be happy • You want to be successful
Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 9) Gestalt approach to problem- solving Adapted approach to perception. Perception involves restructuring . Two views of Necker cube seen by restructuring

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## This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course PSYC 135 at San Jose State University .

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Kellogg_c9 - Problem Solving Kellogg (Chapter 9) Cognition...

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