ISSA-Strength-and-Conditioning-Certification-Main-Course-Textbook (1).pdf - 1015 Mark Avenue \u2022 Carpinteria CA 93013 1.800.892.4772 \u2022

ISSA-Strength-and-Conditioning-Certification-Main-Course-Textbook (1).pdf

This preview shows page 1 out of 615 pages.

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 615 pages?

Unformatted text preview: 1015 Mark Avenue • Carpinteria, CA 93013 1.800.892.4772 • 1.805.745.8111 (international) ISSAonline.com Fourth Edition Strength and Conditioning Course Textbook for SPECIALIST IN STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING International Sports Sciences Association 800.892.4772 • ISSAonline.com Strength and Conditioning Thomas Fahey, EdD Fourth Edition Course Textbook for SPECIALIST IN STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING Strength and Conditioning Thomas D. Fahey, EdD Strength and Conditioning (Edition 4) Official course text for: International Sports Sciences Association’s Specialist in Strength and Conditioning Program 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Copyright © 2019 Thomas D. Fahey. Published by the International Sports Sciences Association, Carpinteria, CA 93013. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including xerography, photocopying, and recording, or in any information storage and retrieval system without the written permission of the publisher. Direct inquiries about copyright and permissions requests for content, weightlifting and training photos, and photos owned by Fitness Technologies, Inc, to: Fitness Technologies, Inc, 5043 Via Lara Lane, Santa Barbara, CA 93111, [email protected] Direct reproduction and publishing inquires to: International Sports Sciences Association, 1015 Mark Avenue, Carpinteria, CA 93013 1.800.892.4772 • 1.805.745.8111 (local) • 1.805.745.8119 (fax) Disclaimer of Warranty This text is informational only. The data and information contained herein are based upon information from various published and unpublished sources that represents training, health, and nutrition literature and practice summarized by the author and publisher. The publisher of this text makes no warranties, expressed or implied, regarding the currency, completeness, or scientific accuracy of this information, nor does it warrant the fitness of the information for any particular purpose. The information is not intended for use in connection with the sale of any product. Any claims or presentations regarding any specific products or brand names are strictly the responsibility of the product owners or manufacturers. This summary of information from unpublished sources, books, research journals, and articles is not intended to replace the advice or attention of health care professionals. It is not intended to direct their behavior or replace their independent professional judgment. If you have a problem or concern with your health, or before you embark on any health, fitness, or sports training programs, seek clearance and guidance from a qualified health care professional. About the Author | iii About the Author Thomas Fahey, EdD Professor, California State University, Chico Chico, CA Thomas Fahey, Ed.D. is a professor of Kinesiology at California State University, Chico. He received his doctorate from University of California, Berkeley, specializing in exercise physiology, motor development, and biomechanics. He was an All-American track and field athlete in college in the discus throw. He continued to pursue athletic excellence after graduation and was masters world champion in the discus throw (won medals in five consecutive world championships, including the gold in 2003), eleven-time US masters national discus champion (consecutive), and four-time gold medal winner in Master’s World Games (consecutive). In 2008, the US Track and Field (USATF) named him the outstanding masters field athlete of the year. In 2006, he was named outstanding professor at California State University, Chico. Dr. Fahey has authored 25 books on exercise physiology, wellness, and strength, and has written hundreds of articles for scientific journals and bodybuilding and fitness magazines. He writes monthly research reviews and articles for Muscular Development, Fitness RX for Men, and Fitness RX for Women. International Sports Sciences Association Contents Introduction: Essential Knowledge for the Specialist in Strength and Conditioning, p1 PHYSICAL TRAINING, p14 2.1 Principles of Physical Fitness, p15 Building Strength and Power: Crucial Knowledge for the Specialist in Strength and Conditioning, p17 Defining Fitness, p17 Muscular Strength, Power, and Endurance, p24 Flexibility, p27 Body Composition, p28 Which Component Should You Emphasize for Your Client?, p28 Putting the Program in Proper Perspective, p29 2.2 Principles of Training: Adaptation to Stress, p32 Specificity, Motor Control, and Motor Learning, p34 Transferring Strength, Power, and Speed to Competitive Performance, p35 Progressive Overload and the FITT Principle, p38 Reversibility—Adapting to Reduced Training, p41 Individual Differences—Limits of Adaptability, p41 Guidelines for Training, p42 MUSCULAR STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE, p47 3.1 Bone and Joints, p48 Organic and Inorganic Bone Components, p50 Structure of Bone, p51 Epiphyseal Growth Centers, p52 The Human Skeleton, p52 The Healthy Bone Triad: Calcium, WeightBearing Exercise, and Healthy Hormone Levels, p54 Hormones and Bone Health, p57 Exercise, p57 The Female Athlete Triad, p59 3.2 Joints, p62 Synovial Joints, p64 3.3 Muscles and Their Actions, p70 Levers and Movement, p71 3.4 Muscle Physiology, p83 Skeletal Muscle and Structure, p85 Muscle Strength: Size, Neural Activation, Elasticity, and Skill, p91 Muscle and the Nervous System, p96 Elastic Muscle Energy, p98 Skill, p100 ENDURANCE AND ENVIRONMENT, p102 4.1 Basic Physiology of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise, p103 The Cardiorespiratory System, p104 Metabolism, p112 4.2 Developing a Cardiorespiratory Endurance Program, p117 Setting Goals, p119 Applying the FITT Principle to Endurance Program Design, p120 Warming Up and Cooling Down, p125 Building Cardiorespiratory Fitness, p126 Maintaining Cardiorespiratory Fitness, p129 4.3 Environmental Factors in Strength and Conditioning, p132 Principles of Temperature Regulation, p134 Exercise in the Heat, p137 Preventing Heat Problems, p141 Exercise in the Cold, p142 Physical Activity at Altitude, p143 Exercise and Air Pollution, p145 Travel and Jet Lag, p145 BIOMECHANICS AND MOTOR CONTROL, p149 5.1 Developing Basic Movement Skills for Strength Development, p150 Assessing and Developing Movement Skills for Loaded Lower Body Exercises, p152 Transitioning into Whole-Body Lifts, p159 5.2 Core Fitness, p161 Core Muscles as Stabilizers, p163 Train Movements—Not Muscles, p164 Beyond Sit-Ups, p164 The “Basic Four” Core Training Exercises, p166 Other Core Fitness Exercises, p168 TOOLS OF THE SPECIALIST IN STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING, p172 6.1 Resistance Exercise Methods, p173 Resistance Exercise Methods, p175 Choosing the Exercises, p177 Muscle Hypertrophy, p179 Muscle Power, p180 Muscle Endurance, p180 Basic Cycling Techniques, p182 Safety and Injury Prevention, p185 6.2 Basic Weight Training Exercises, p189 Chest and Shoulder Exercises, p191 Upper Back Exercises, p195 Arm Exercises, p195 Abdominal Exercises, p196 Lower-Body Exercises, p197 Exercises for the Calves, p199 Basic Weight-Training Programs, p199 6.3 The Bench Press, p203 The Bench Press as a Whole-Body Exercise, p203 Use the Right Equipment, p203 Using Technique to Increase Bench Press Strength, p205 Training Aids to Improve Bench Press Strength, p207 Bench Press Training, p208 6.4 Squat and Deadlift, p213 Squats: The Ultimate Functional StrengthBuilding Exercises, p215 Back Squat Basics, p215 Front Squats, p219 Overhead Squats, p219 Box Squats, p220 Power-Rack Squats, p221 Thoughts on Squat Training, p221 Building Large Lower Body Muscles with High Set Deep Squat Workouts, p222 High Set Workouts to Promote Lower Body Muscle Hypertrophy, p222 6.5 Olympic Lifts, p224 Applying Olympic Weightlifting Techniques to Power Sports, p226 Deadlift, p226 Snatch, p228 Integrating the Snatch into Power Workouts, p230 The Clean and Jerk, p230 Learning Progression, p233 Squat Snatch Evaluation Checklist, p234 Clean and Jerk Evaluation Checklist, p236 6.6 Resistive Exercise Without Weights, p238 Air Squat, p240 Lunge, p241 Burpee, p241 Curl Up, p242 Spine Extension (“Bird Dog”), p243 Isometric Side Bridge, p243 Thrusters, p244 Overhead squats, p244 Front Plank, p244 Push-ups, p245 Six Principles of Body-Weight Training, p245 6.7 Cross Training and Circuit Training, p247 Cross-Training, p249 Circuit Training, p253 6.8 Suspension Training, p256 Suspension Training Builds Core Fitness, p258 Suspension Training Workouts, p260 Where to Purchase Suspension Training Devices, p261 6.9 Plyometric Exercises, p263 Stationary Plyometrics, p267 Horizontal Jumps and Hops, p271 Upper Body Plyometrics, p274 Box Jumping, p275 Medicine Ball Exercises, p277 Other Exercises to Develop Speed and Power, p279 6.10 Power and Speed, p281 Elements of Power, p284 Sprinting, p287 Peak Power Training on a Stationary Bicycle, p294 Agility Training, p295 Peak Power Weight Training, p296 Bench Throws, p296 Functional Training, p297 Other Exercises to Develop Speed and Power, p299 Integrating Power Training into Workouts, p299 6.11 Flexibility, p301 What Determines Flexibility?, p303 Tissues That Obstruct Range of Motion, p304 Types of Stretching Techniques, p307 Benefits of Flexibility and Stretching Exercises, p309 Principles of Flexibility, p312 Basic Stretching Exercises, p312 ASSESSMENT, p319 7.1 Assessment: Tests and Measurement, p320 Designing the Testing Program, p323 Choosing the Correct Tests, p324 Interpreting Test Results, p325 Measuring Strength, p326 Measuring Strength-Endurance, p334 Assessing Core Fitness, p337 Other Strength Tests, p340 Tests of Power, p340 Speed Tests, p344 Endurance Fitness and Maximal Oxygen Consumption, p347 Agility Tests, p351 7.2 Obesity and Measuring Body Composition, p354 Overweight Versus Obesity, p356 Obesity and Health, p357 Obesity and Exercise Performance, p360 Measuring Body Composition, p360 Body Composition Measurement Techniques, p364 PROGRAM DESIGN FOR SPORTS, p375 8.1 Designing Training Programs for Recreational Athletes, p376 Designing the Program, p378 General Fitness for Health, p378 Higher Levels of General Fitness, p379 Fitness Programs for Power Sports, p380 Skill Development for Athletes, p380 Endurance Fitness, p383 8.2 Football, p385 Football and Endurance, p388 Strength Training, p388 Flexibility, p390 Plyometrics and Sprint Training, p390 Agility, p390 Body Composition, p391 Fitness Testing, p391 Training for Football, p392 Essential Elements of the Football Training Program, p392 8.3 Basketball, p396 Physical Demands of Basketball, p398 Fitness Testing for Basketball, p399 Physical Conditioning for Basketball, p402 8.4 Baseball and Softball, p407 Baseball and Softball Skills, p409 Fitness Testing for Baseball, p410 Physical Conditioning for Baseball, p417 8.5 Swimming, p423 Physiology of Swimming, p425 Testing Swimmers, p427 Training, p427 Injuries in Swimming, p428 Weight Training and Plyometrics for Swimmers, p431 8.6 Soccer, p434 Physiology of Soccer, p436 Testing Soccer Players, p437 Training for Soccer, p438 Fitness and Soccer, p439 8.7 Track and Field, p441 Training Throwers, p443 Training Sprinters, p446 Training Jumpers and Vaulters, p447 Training Middle-Distance and Distance Runners, p449 Weight Training and Plyometrics for Runners, p450 Progression of Training Methods during the Last Century, p450 Over-Distance Training (Long-Slow Distance or LSD Training), p451 Interval Training, p451 8.8 Bodybuilding, p454 How Muscle Tissue Changes with Training, p456 Maximizing Muscle Tension to Promote Muscle Growth, p460 Effective Techniques for Increasing Muscle Mass and Strength, p461 How Often Should Bodybuilders Use High Tension Training Techniques?, p469 Total Muscle Fiber Training Techniques, p469 Program Design, p471 8.9 Weightlifting and Powerlifting, p473 Weightlifting, p475 Testing Weightlifters, p478 Promoting Fitness and Preventing Injury, p478 Designing a Weightlifting Program, p480 Powerlifting, p482 Testing Powerlifters, p485 Training for Powerlifting, p485 Injuries in Powerlifting, p488 SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY, p543 8.10 Golf, p490 Golf and Health, p493 Elements of the Golf Swing, p495 Golf and Flexibility, p496 Minimize Golf Injuries, p496 Developing Golf Fitness, p497 Golf Hazards, p498 INJURY, p563 NUTRITION, SUPPLEMENTS, AND DRUGS, p502 9.1 Nutrition for Health and Performance, p503 Essential Nutrients, p506 The Healthy, High-Performance Diet and MyPlate, p517 Nutrition, Exercise, and Weight Control, p521 Principles of Losing Weight for Active People, p521 Poly-Drug and Food Supplement Phenomenon in Sports, p524 9.2 Ergogenic Aids: Drugs and Supplements, p526 Strength Coaches and the Ethics of Ergogenic Aids, p528 Common Drugs and Supplements Available to Athletes, p529 Agents Taken to Promote Muscle Hypertrophy, Strength, and Power, p529 Agents Taken to Speed Recovery, p537 Substances Taken to Increase Aggressiveness and Training Intensity, p539 Substances Taken to Aid Weight Control, p540 10.1 Sports Psychology for the Personal Trainer, p544 The Winning Edge, p547 The Psychology of the Champion Athlete, p548 The Elements of Success, p552 Measuring Anxiety in Athletes, p557 Imagery and Athletics, p557 11.1 Prevention and Care of Athletic Injuries, p564 Minimizing Injuries, p565 Importance of Prior Planning, p572 11.2 Managing Common Athletic Injuries and Illnesses, p573 Injuries to Joints and Muscles, p575 Wound Healing: Recovery from Soft Tissue Injury, p576 RICE—Method and Controversies, p578 Post-Injury Rehabilitation, p579 Overuse Injuries, p580 Back Pain, p582 Knee Injuries, p584 Rotator Cuff Injuries, p589 Systemic Disorders, p590 Common Viral Illnesses, p592 Maintaining a Healthy Immune System, p593 UNIT 1.1 Essential Knowledge for the Specialist in Strength and Conditioning 2 | Unit 1.1 Unit Outline 1. Introduction: Scope of duties and responsibilities 3. Economics for the strength and conditioning specialist: A. Job opportunities B. Recruiting clients 2. Essential knowledge for the strength and conditioning specialist 1. Athletes A. Education: basic scientific knowledge, applied scientific knowledge 2. General public 3. Teams 1. Training in basic sciences, e.g., anatomy, physiology, chemistry, physics C. Brochure D. Relationship with parents E. Relationship with schools, sports clubs, and health clubs B. Understand the principles of training: development of health and performance fitness components F. Working with unique populations 1. Sports nutrition 2. Measurement G. Working with clients 4. Legal and ethical considerations 3. Motor learning A. Behave ethically 4. Psychology of sport B. Insurance 5. Prevention and treatment of athletic injuries C. Written questionnaire C. Practical experience: athletics, coaching, training experience 5. Certification A. Continuing education 6. Summary Learning Objectives After completing this unit, you will be able to: • Define the duties and responsibilities of the strength and conditioning specialist • Understand the importance of strong academic preparation in basic sciences • Learn that strength and conditioning specialists need a good understanding of exercise physiology, biomechanics, nutrition, pharmacology, pathophysiology, sport psychology, motor learning, and motor development. Strength and Conditioning • Learn that strength and conditioning specialists must understand basic principles of fitness such as overload, specificity, whole-body functional training, individual differences, reversibility, periodization, rest, over-training, and stimulus variability. • Learn that strength and conditioning specialist should have a practical knowledge of training techniques and exercise programming. • Learn about economic opportunities for strength and conditioning specialists • Learn the importance of ethical behavior Essential Knowledge for the Specialist in Strength and Conditioning | 3 To be competitive, modern athletes must be in top shape. Nearly all athletes can benefit from the services of a strength and conditioning specialist. The trainer can help athletes develop consistent habits in their training, motivate them, give them a scientifically structured training and nutrition program, and integrate the many aspects of the program into a cohesive strategy to improve performance. Strength and conditioning specialists possess an impressive array of training, nutritional, and psychological tools to help athletes excel. At the same time, coaches in high school, college, and sports clubs unfortunately are often poorly trained because of the sorry state of coaching education in many American colleges and universities. This presents opportunities for strength and conditioning coaches to fill the void and to help motivate athletes to “be the best they can be” on and off the playing field. The strength and conditioning specialist must have the scientific and practical knowledge to help people improve their fitness and achieve the level of performance they want. This process involves determining the client’s goals, identifying the sport’s requirements, assessing fitness and physical capacity, and designing a program to help the client achieve his or her goals. Strength and conditioning coaches with specialized knowledge in strength and conditioning are invaluable at all levels. They can teach high school athletes the principles of training for strength, power, and endurance. They can help prepare college or professional athletes for the high demands of elite sport—often determining whether or not they make the team. Trainers can also help the “average” person reach higher levels of performance in recreational tennis, skiing, master’s sports, league basketball, softball, and bodybuilding, to name just a few. The trainer also can be a motivating factor helping people maintain a healthy lifestyle involving regular exercise, proper nutrition, reduced stress, and the reduction of disease risk factors. Working with the average person is often the bread and butter for the strength and conditioning coach. America faces an obesity epidemic. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ) reported that 66% of Americans are either obese or overweight. About 50% of people are physically inactive and could benefit from the services of a qualified strength and conditioning coach. Special populations also are potential clients— even for the strength and conditioning specialist. People with diabetes, asthma, spinal cord injury, amputation, or cerebral palsy or who are developmentally disabled will benefit from the services of a knowledgeable trainer. Families of these people may have discretionary income that will pay for your services. You could help these people improve their physical capacities for sport or health and well-being. International Sports Sciences Association 4 | Unit 1.1 Essential Knowledge for the Specialist in Strength and Conditioning Anatomy: The study of the structure of the body and the relationship between its parts. Physiology: The study of how living organisms function. Exercise physiology: The study of how living organisms function during exercise. Biomechanics: The study of mechanical basis of locomotion of the body (informative website dealing with biomechanics: https:// isbweb.org). Pharmacology: The study of the discovery, chemistry, effects, uses, and manufacture of drugs. Sports psychology: The study of the conscious mind and its effects on behavior in an athletic environment. Sports nutrition: The study of foods and the physical and chemical process by which the body uses them during sport and exercise. Strength and Conditioning Strength and conditioning specialists who work with serious athletes must be more than good athletes themselves. They must have detailed knowledge of fitness assessment, specific sports, and exercise program development, including general knowledge of anatomy, physiology, exercise physiology, biomechanics, sports training, pharmacology, sports psychology, and sports nu...
View Full Document

  • Fall '19
  • strength training, Physical exercise, Specialist in Strength and Conditioning

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture