Week 4_descriptive stats

Week 4_descriptive stats - SAN JOS STATE UNIVERSITY College...

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1 SAN JOSÉ STATE UNIVERSITY College of Social Work S. W. 242 Spring 2009 Edward Cohen Week 4: February 13, 2008 Design of Quantitative Survey Instruments / Introduction to SPSS and Descriptive Statistics "There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics." Benjamin Disraeli (19 th Century British Statesman) “Grown ups love figures…only from these figures do they think they have learned anything…” The Little Prince Concepts You Should Know: Descriptive statistics Frequency (of a variable) Frequency distribution Absolute frequency distribution Cumulative frequency distribution Cumulative percentage frequency distribution Bar graph Histogram Frequency polygon Measures of central tendency Mode Median Mean (average) Outlier Measures of variability N = Range Percentile Quartiles Variance Standard deviation I. Design of Data Collection Instruments A. Review: asking the right questions: 1. Avoid leading questions 2. Avoid double barreled questions 3. Match the language with age and cognitive levels of target population
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2 rm. 4. Match the question with the intended cultural meaning of the target population 5. Build in ways to minimize error in response due to memory limitations 6. Remember—the attributes for “check one” questions should be exhaustive and mutually exclusive 7. Consider the order of questions in the instrument/survey: a) Least sensitive (such as basic demographic info) to most sensitive b) Whenever possible, questions should flow like a conversation c) Prepare a few prompts for each question (could be in the instructions to the interviewer) to encourage response B. A few important technical formatting principles: 1. See Rubin & Babbie, Chapter 9 for good examples of formatting 2. Number and identify sub-questions (1, 1a, 2, 2a, 2b etc.) to help respondents and research staff. 3. Allow sufficient space for responses and to maintain a “clean” look of the fo Keep general appearance in mind. Use large and clear font-types. Use colored paper covers (actual project version only). Leave space for data notes. 4. A vertical format is recommended with consistent patterns for codes, alignment, and use of response labels. 5. Include instructions and directions for question direction (e.g., “if yes go to…”). Assume that you will not be the only interviewer and that instructions are needed to maintain consistency of data collection.
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Week 4_descriptive stats - SAN JOS STATE UNIVERSITY College...

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