Krashen - Krashen Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan LLD108: Second...

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Unformatted text preview: Krashen Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan LLD108: Second Language Development Krashen's Input Hypothesis Model Known by various names Monitor hypothesis Input model Comprehensible input model Natural model All these names refer to the one and the same model Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen 09/08/10 Five hypotheses Acquisition learning distinction hypothesis Natural sequence/order hypothesis Monitor hypothesis Comprehensible input hypothesis Affective filter hypothesis 09/08/10 Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen Acquisition-Learning Distinction Hypothesis Acquisition Learning Subconscious implicit learning A distinct process can never become learning The way children learn the language Meaning focused Inductive Naturalistic settings Conscious explicit learning A distinct process can never become acquisition The way adults learn the language Grammar (form) focused Deductive Formal settings 09/08/10 Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen Criticisms Subconscious conscious is a psychological process It is possible they are two endpoints in a continuum (for Krashen, learning cannot become acquisition and vice versa) Confusion between learning settings and psychological processes Problem in defining what a formal setting is Research shows that children are not the best language learners Experimental verification is impossible Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen 09/08/10 Current research opinion on acquisition learning distinction Krashen may be correct neurobiological findings in the last 3 or 4 years indicate that there are two kinds of knowledge declarative (what) and procedural (how). Originally they were considered to be two sides of the same coin. They have been shown to be two entirely different processes It is possible that children acquire language procedurally from the start whereas adults learn declarative knowledge and then try to convert it into procedural knowledge. Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen 09/08/10 Implications of Acquisition-Learning Distinction Hypothesis Content based language teaching total immersion is preferable. Provide meaningful contexts for understanding language Meaningful communication activities such as information gap activities. Cooperative group activities Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen 09/08/10 Natural (order) sequence hypothesis Children learn language in a predictable sequence. It is impossible to alter the course of development since language acquisition, be it L1 or L2 is a UG driven process. Grammar teaching is a waste of time. 09/08/10 Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen Readiness Hypothesis in second language development Readiness hypothesis 09/08/10 Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen Criticisms on natural sequence hypothesis Natural sequence is a product of various factors such as Cognitive transparency Artifact of methods and instruments used Native language influence 09/08/10 Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen Criticisms on natural sequence hypothesis (contd.) The sequences are not identical though similar the items that are learnt in L1 are also learnt earlier in L2 Accuracy order is not acquisition order The morphemes studied are only a tiny part of the language Total disregard for grammar had negative results in Canadian immersion programs It has been shown that teaching can somewhat alter the sequence (noticeability attention hypothesis) Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen 09/08/10 Implications of natural order hypothesis Respect the silent period don't push learners to speak right from the beginning. Errors are developmental and are a natural byproduct of learning tolerate them. Allow learners to make errors and do not correct them make a list and build a remedial lesson to address them 09/08/10 Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen Monitor hypothesis Three conditions: Knowledge of grammar Focus on grammar Availability of time 09/08/10 Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen Monitor hypothesis Grammar focused learning leads to grammar focused production Children do not monitor so why should adults? Learning language is different from learning about language 09/08/10 Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen Criticisms on monitor hypothesis Children do monitor Children are not the best language learners. The hypothesis is not falsifiable. Total disregard for grammar had negative effects in the Canadian immersion programs. Noticeability hypothesis monitoring may in fact be good. 09/08/10 Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen Comprehensible input hypothesis Vygotsky Zone of proximal development (ZPD) i + 1 (expanded, it means, the level of interlanguage plus 1 level beyond) Comprehension is sufficient and there is no necessity for production 09/08/10 Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen Comprehensible input hypothesis - criticism Imprecise terminology impossible to come up with operationalizable definitions, the level of the learner, 1 level, 2 levels, one level beyond what are they? Intuitively appealing but impossible to verify Comprehensible output is as important as input is Comprehensible input cannot be a causal variable since it is not given in all cultures. Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen 09/08/10 Implications of input hypothesis Employ teacher talk along motherese or foreigner talk 09/08/10 Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen Affective filter hypothesis Learners who suffer from anxiety or lack of motivation or negative attitude somehow switch off their comprehension mechanisms and so even if they are provided comprehensible input, they will not be able to process the input. Therefore a low affective filter is important. 09/08/10 Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen How does affective filter work? 09/08/10 Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen The significance of affective filter hypothesis Accounts for individual variation Accounts for the differences between adult and child language acquisition processes 09/08/10 Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen Criticisms on affective filter hypothesis A little anxiety is better than no anxiety at all. Motivation, attitude, anxiety not the cause but maybe the consequence A simple correlation (causal-result) cannot be made between the affective variables and the language acquisition process Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen 09/08/10 Brain science and affective filter hypothesis Brain scientists believe that affective variables do play a role in human learning and that certain enzymes that are produced in the body while we are anxious do prevent us from processing data. 09/08/10 Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen Implications of affective filter hypothesis Create a non-threatening teaching/learning atmosphere in the classroom. Provide a risk-safe environment. 09/08/10 Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen Create teaching/learning environment in such a way that students encounter success rather than failure. Provide positive and constructive feedback. Provide opportunities for cooperative learning and hands on activities. Analyze your classroom behavior for any hidden agenda 09/08/10 Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen Krashen's Variables For Krashen, there are only two variables for language acquisition to take place: Abundant comprehensible input Low affective filter 09/08/10 Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen Krashen An evaluation Major strength intuitively appealing Able to be translated into pedagogical models Hybrid model and so draws strengths from various theories For the first time, somebody was able to say that grammar teaching is not good Humanistic in its approach Imprecise Not verifiable 09/08/10 Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan, LLD 108 Krashen ...
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