Kellogg_c4 - Psychology 135 COGNITION (Van Selst) Kellogg...

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Kellogg Chapter 4 Memory Systems Van Selst / Cognition 1 Psychology 135 COGNITION (Van Selst) Kellogg Chapter 4 Memory Systems No one is likely to remember what is entirely uninteresting to him. - George MacDonald
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Kellogg Chapter 4 Memory Systems Van Selst / Cognition 2 Memory • Memory is the means by which we retain and draw on our past experiences to use that information in the present. • As a process, memory includes the dynamic mechanisms associated with storing, retaining, and retrieving information about past experiences • Memory involves ENCODING, STORAGE, & RETRIEVAL
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Kellogg Chapter 4 Memory Systems Van Selst / Cognition 3 Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) “Standard Model of Memory”
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Kellogg Chapter 4 Memory Systems Van Selst / Cognition 4 Schacter’s Seven Sins of Memory Transience rapid loss of information from STM Absent-mindedness Breakdowns in attention Blocking Inability to retrieve information from LTM Misattribution Source misattribution is misidentifying source of knowledge Suggestibility Susceptibility of memory to incorporate misinformation •B i a s Our current beliefs influence our perception of the past Persistence An unwelcome imposition of past memories (e.g., PTSD)
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Kellogg Chapter 4 Memory Systems Van Selst / Cognition 5 Memory (History) Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) studied higher mental processes. Ebbinghaus used the study of nonsense syllables to discover the fundamental laws of learning and developed the forgetting curve based on his “method of savings.” George Miller is best known for his studies on the capacity of Short-term Memory (STM). His name is associated with the "Magic Number 7 plus/minus 2” (bits of information in STM) and “chunking.” Frederick Bartlett studied memory under natural conditions. He posited that past experience helps reconstruct the material sought to be retrieved. He saw memory as an active and often inaccurate process ( “ omissions ” and normalizations ”). George Sperling (1960) used partial and whole report to study “Iconic Memory” Averbach & Coriell (1961) studied “Iconic Memory” (and masking) Baddeley advocated for a conceptualization of active “ working memory ”over the prior passive conceptualization of STM.
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Kellogg Chapter 4 Memory Systems Van Selst / Cognition 6 Sensory Memory Perceptual systems operate on sensory information to create perceptions. Not all incoming information can be processed due to limited higher level system capacity. Information that is not immediately attended to is available in a very temporary "buffer" ( sensory memory ), allowing some later processing – as when you can still hear someone asking you a question even though you weren't really listening when they asked it.
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course PSYC 135 at San Jose State University .

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Kellogg_c4 - Psychology 135 COGNITION (Van Selst) Kellogg...

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