Organized Body of Rational Knowledge

Organized Body of Rational Knowledge - Organized Body of...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Organized Body of Rational Knowledge Branches of Philosophy Philosopher Topic Theoretical Metaphysic s Plato The Allegory of the Cave – Republic (p. 69-75) 1. Form of the Good resembles the sun, the source of intelligibility and reality of the Forms. 2. Ordinary everyday objects stand in the same relationship to the Forms as shadows are to the original object. 3. Plato compares the gradual ascent of the mind towards the Forms with a journey from darkness to light. 4. Illumination comes instead at an intellectual level from the supreme Form which is the source of all reality and understanding. Term: Dualism Aristotle Individual Substance – Categories (p. 76-79) 1. Primary Substance: a particular entity – fundamental subjects of predication (‘this particular man’ or ‘this particular horse’). 2. Secondary Substance: universal essences that exist that are said
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
of a particular substance (Socrates is a primary substance, while man is a secondary substance). 3. Substances have essential characteristics which make them the kind of thing they are. Term: Primary and Secondary Substance Hume The Limits of Metaphysical Speculation – Enquiry concerning Human Understanding (p. 102-107) 1. Our knowledge cannot go beyond our experience. 2. Relations of Ideas: abstract reasoning and truths of mathematics are established a priori – by the mere operation of thought. These form a closed system of definitions about our ideas and concepts: they do not give is any information about what really exists in the world (propositions or statements). 3. Matters of Fact: what really exists – based entirely on experience of what has been observed. Term: Materialism Epistemolo Plato Innate Knowledge – Meno (p. 3-12) 1. The mind has an innate capacity
Background image of page 2
gy to see the truth. 2. We have within us ‘true thoughts which only need to be awakened into knowledge by putting questions’. 3. The soul ‘remembers’ or ‘recollects’ truths it once knew in a previous existence. 4. Example of mathematics to illustrate the theory of our innate cognitive powers. Term: A Priori / A Posteriori Aristotle Four Types of Explanation – Physics (p. 413- 415) 1. Material Cause: the matter of a particular object or event. 2. Formal Cause: the form, definition or essential properties of something or some event. 3. Efficient Cause: initiated or produced movement or change. 4. Final Cause: the telos , finis , goal, end, or purpose something is done. Term: Empiricism Descartes New Foundations for Knowledge – Meditations (p. 21-25)
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
1. Radical Skepticism: anything that can be called into question, for any reason whatever, will be discarded. 2. Explain his method of doubt, each step that he takes, and what this means to the other branches of knowledge, such as the natural sciences. 3.
Background image of page 4
Image of page 5
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course PHIL 10 at San Jose State University .

Page1 / 26

Organized Body of Rational Knowledge - Organized Body of...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 5. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online