Chapter 3 stoich lecture notes

Chapter 3 stoich lecture notes - 9/8/10 Zumdahl Chapter 3...

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Unformatted text preview: 9/8/10 Zumdahl Chapter 3 9/8/10 11 Chapter 3 Stoichiometry 3.1 Atomic Masses 3.2 The Mole 3.3 Molar Mass 3.4 Percent Composition of Compounds 3.5 Determining the Formula of a Compound 3.6 Chemical Equations 3.7 Balancing Chemical Equations 3.8 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products 3.9 Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant 9/8/10 Zumdahl Chapter 3 Atomic Mass We measure mass, volume, pressure, etc. We want number of atoms (or number of moles) grams x (grams/mole)-1 = moles 9/8/10 22 9/8/10 Zumdahl Chapter 3 9/8/10 33 Atoms Avogadros Number is the number of 12C atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon N0 = 6.02 X 1023 The mass, in grams, of Avogadro's number of atoms of an element is numerically equal to the relative atomic mass of that element (relative to carbon) The mass of 6.02 X 1023 atoms of 12C = 12.00 g (defn) The mass of 1 atom of 12C = 12.00 amu (12.00 9/8/10 Zumdahl Chapter 3 9/8/10 44 Molar Mass Molecular Mass (aka the molecular weight) of a molecule equals the sum of the atomic masses of all of the atoms making up the molecule. 9/8/10 Zumdahl Chapter 3 9/8/10 Zumdahl Chapter 3 55 Moles The # of moles of chemical is its amount. One mole of a substance equals the amount that contains Avogadro's number of atoms or molecules. One mole of an element or molecule has a Molecular Weight (MWt) of that element or molecule, expressed in grams For example, the Molecular Weight of Glucose ( Glucose C6H12O6 ) is MWt = 6(12.0 g/mol) + 12(1.00 g/mol) + 6(16.0 g/mol) 9/8/10 Zumdahl Chapter 3 9/8/10 66 Isoamyl acetate have the formula C7H14O2. Calculate (a) how many moles and (b) how many molecules are contained in 0.250 grams of isoamyl acetate. Strategy: Use the units. You are given grams. You need moles. The molecular weight is given in g / mol). Then you need molecules. Avos # is molecules / mole. 1. Calculate MWt of C7H14O2 2. Calculate the number of moles in 0.250 grams 3. Using Avogadros number to calculate the number of molecules in the number of moles of 9/8/10 Zumdahl Chapter 3 9/8/10 Zumdahl Chapter 3 77 Percentage Composition (g/g) from Empirical or Tetrodotoxin, a potent poison found in the ovaries and liver of the globefish, has the empirical formula C11H17N3O8 . Calculate the mass percentages of the four element in this compound....
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Chapter 3 stoich lecture notes - 9/8/10 Zumdahl Chapter 3...

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