Chapter 3 stoich lecture notes

# Chapter 3 stoich lecture notes - Zumdahl Chapter 3 11...

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Unformatted text preview: 9/8/10 Zumdahl Chapter 3 9/8/10 11 Chapter 3 Stoichiometry 3.1 Atomic Masses 3.2 The Mole 3.3 Molar Mass 3.4 Percent Composition of Compounds 3.5 Determining the Formula of a Compound 3.6 Chemical Equations 3.7 Balancing Chemical Equations 3.8 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products 3.9 Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant 9/8/10 Zumdahl Chapter 3 Atomic Mass • We measure mass, volume, pressure, etc. • We want number of atoms (or number of moles) • grams x (grams/mole)-1 = moles 9/8/10 22 9/8/10 Zumdahl Chapter 3 9/8/10 33 Atoms • Avogadro’s Number is the number of 12C atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon N0 = 6.02 X 1023 • The mass, in grams, of Avogadro's number of atoms of an element is numerically equal to the relative atomic mass of that element (relative to carbon) • The mass of 6.02 X 1023 atoms of 12C = 12.00 g (defn) • The mass of 1 atom of 12C = 12.00 amu (12.00 9/8/10 Zumdahl Chapter 3 9/8/10 44 Molar Mass • Molecular Mass (aka the molecular weight) of a molecule equals the sum of the atomic masses of all of the atoms making up the molecule. 9/8/10 Zumdahl Chapter 3 9/8/10 Zumdahl Chapter 3 55 Moles • The # of moles of chemical is its amount. • One mole of a substance equals the amount that contains Avogadro's number of atoms or molecules. • One mole of an element or molecule has a Molecular Weight (MWt) of that element or molecule, expressed in grams • For example, the Molecular Weight of Glucose ( Glucose C6H12O6 ) is MWt = 6(12.0 g/mol) + 12(1.00 g/mol) + 6(16.0 g/mol) 9/8/10 Zumdahl Chapter 3 9/8/10 66 Isoamyl acetate have the formula C7H14O2. Calculate (a) how many moles and (b) how many molecules are contained in 0.250 grams of isoamyl acetate. Strategy: Use the units. You are given grams. You need moles. The molecular weight is given in g / mol). Then you need molecules. Avo’s # is molecules / mole. 1. Calculate MWt of C7H14O2 2. Calculate the number of moles in 0.250 grams 3. Using Avogadro’s number to calculate the number of molecules in the number of moles of 9/8/10 Zumdahl Chapter 3 9/8/10 Zumdahl Chapter 3 77 Percentage Composition (g/g) from Empirical or Tetrodotoxin, a potent poison found in the ovaries and liver of the globefish, has the empirical formula C11H17N3O8 . Calculate the mass percentages of the four element in this compound....
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Chapter 3 stoich lecture notes - Zumdahl Chapter 3 11...

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