Chapter 4 rxns lecture notes

Chapter 4 rxns lecture notes - Chapter 4 Types of Chemical...

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Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry 4.1 Water, the Liquid of Life 4.2 Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes 4.3 The Composition of Solutions 4.4 Types of Chemical Reactions 4.5 Precipitation Reactions 4.6 Describing Reactions in Solution 4.7 Selective Precipitation 4.8 Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions 4.9 Acid-Base Reactions 4.10 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 4.11 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations (skip) 4.12 Simple Oxidation-Reduction Titrations (skip)
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Water, the Liquid of Life (part 1) Water is polar . In a water molecule, each oxygen atom is partially negative. Each hydrogen atom is partially positive. This phenomenon is called charge separation. . Oxygen is an electron hog. It does not share electrons well with other atoms. Oxygen takes more than its share of electron density, that is why it has a partial negative charge. The hydrogen atoms are stripped of much of their electron density and so carry a partial positive charge. In liquid water and especially in solid water, the molecules interact strongly with each other, with preferred orientations.
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Water, the Liquid of Life (part 2) Water has all sort of strange and unusual properties. 1) Its density decreases when it freezes (ice floats). 2) It has a high boiling point and high heat of vaporization. 3) It has high surface tension. 4) It dissolves many salts (like sodium chloride) and polar molecules (like ethanol). 5) It does not dissolve non-polar substances (oil and water don’t mix). 6) It has high heat capacity 7) In the presence of amphipaths, it readily forms compartments (like in cells). 8) Where there is liquid water, there is life (I bet).
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Water, the Liquid of Life (part 3) Water dissolves NaCl. NaCl dissolves in water. To dissolve is to mix at the level of individual ions and molecules. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. A solution may exist in any phase. Water is the solvent The solvent is the component of a solution that is present in the greatest amount. NaCl is the solute The solute is the substance that is dissolved in a solution. Pairs of liquids that mix in any proportion are miscible . Liquids that do not mix are immiscible.
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Ice
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Classification of Molecules 1) Non-polar: No charge separation, every atom is neutral. Examples: graphite = C big , hexane = C 8 H 18 , or olive oil. 2) Polar: With charge separation, some atoms carry partial charge. Examples: water = H 2 O, ammonia = NH 3 , fructose = C 6 H 12 O 6 . 3) Ionic Compounds: With Formal (unit) charge.
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Examples: Na + Cl - , Na + Br - , Mg 2+ Cl - 2 , NH 4 + NO 3 - , CH 3 COO - Na + Salts contain charged (unit charge, not partial charge) atoms or groups of atoms. Cations: Na
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Chapter 4 rxns lecture notes - Chapter 4 Types of Chemical...

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