Chapter 5 QM lecture notes

Chapter 5 QM lecture notes - Chapter 5 Quantum Mechanics...

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Chapter 5 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Theory 5.1 Electromagnetic Radiation 5.2 The Nature of Matter 5.3 The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen 5.4 The Bohr Model 5.5 The Quantum Mechanical Description of the Atom 5.6 The Particle in a Box (skip) 5.7 The Wave Equation for the Hydrogen Atom 5.8 The Physical Meaning of a Wave Function 5.9 The Characteristics of Hydrogen Orbitals 5.10 Electron Spin and the Pauli Principle 5.11 Polyelectronic Atoms 5.12 The History of the Periodic Table 5.13 The Aufbau Principle and the Periodic Table 5.14 Further Development of the Polyelectronic Model 5.15 Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 5.16 The Properties of Alkali Metals
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Waves and Light Electromagnetic Radiation Energy travels through space as electromagnetic radiation Examples: visible light, microwave radiation, radio waves, X-rays, infra-red radiation, UV radiation Waves (characterized by λ, υ, amp, c) Travels at the speed of light (3x10 8 m/sec)
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Light consists of waves of oscillating electric (E) and magnetic fields (H) that are perpendicular to one another and to the direction of propagation of the light. Electromagnetic Radiation
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400 nm (violet) The visible spectrum 700 nm (red) Electromagnetic Spectrum
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Important Equations (that apply to EM radiation) c = ( λ υ c=lambda nu) c = 3 x 10 8 meters / second λ = wavelength [m, nm (10 -9 m), Å (10 -10 m)] = frequency (Hz = s -1 ) [frequency and wavelength vary inversely] E = h υ (Energy = h nu) h = Planck’s constant ( h = 6.62 x 10 -34 J s = 6.62 x 10 -34 kg m 2 s -1 ) [the energy of a wave increases with its frequency]
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AM Radio Waves KJR Seattle, Channel 95 (AM) 950 kHz = 950,000 second -1 c = λν => λ = c/ν λ = 3.0x10 8 m s -1 / 9.5 x 10 5 s -1 = 316 m When the frequency ( ν ) of EM is 950 kHz, the wavelength ( λ ) is 316 meters (about 1/5 mile).
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FM Radio Waves WABE Atlanta: FM 90.1 MHz c = λν => λ = c/ν = 3.0x10 8 m s -1 / 90.1x10 6 s -1 = 3.33 m FM radio waves are higher frequency, higher energy and longer wavelength, than AM radio waves.
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Problem The X-ray generator in Loren Williams’ lab produces x- radiation with wavelength of 1.54 Å (0.1 nm = 1 Å). What is the frequency of the X-rays? What is the energy of each X-ray photon? c = λν E = hν
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X-rays were discovered in 1895 by German scientist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen. He received a Nobel Prize in 1901. A week after his discovery, Roentgen took an x-ray image of his wife’s hand, visualizing the bones of her fingers and her wedding ring - the world’s first x-ray image. Roentgen ‘temporarily’ used the term “x”-ray to indicate the unknown nature of this radiation. Max von Laue (Nobel Prize 1914) showed that x-rays are electromagnetic radiation, just like visible light, but with higher frequency (and higher energy) and smaller wavelength. Within a few months of Roentgen’s discovery, doctors in New
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Chapter 5 QM lecture notes - Chapter 5 Quantum Mechanics...

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