Chapter 6 bonding lecture notes

Chapter 6 bonding lecture notes - Chapter 6. Bonding 6.1...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6. Bonding 6.1 Types of Chemical Bonds 6.2 Electronegativity 6.3 Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments 6.4 Ions: Electron Configurations and Sizes 6.5 Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds 6.6 Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds 6.7 The Covalent Chemical Bond: A Model 6.8 Covalent Bond Energies and Chemical Reactions 6.9 The Localized Electron Bonding Model 6.10 Lewis Structure 6.11 Resonance 6.12 Exceptions to the Octet Rule 6.13 Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model What is a Chemical Bond? (1) Bonding is the force of attraction that holds atoms together in an element (N 2 ) or compound (CO 2 or NaCl). The distances between bonded atoms are less than those between non-bonded atoms. The forces between bonded atoms are greater than those between non-bonded atoms. The principal types of bonding are ionic, covalent, and metallic. What is a Chemical Bond? (2) A chemical bond links two atoms or groups of atoms when the forces acting between them are sufficient to lead to the formation of an aggregate (a molecule) with sufficient stability to make it convenient for the chemist to consider it as an independent "molecular species Paraphrased from Linus Pauling (1967). 09/08/10 Types of Chemical Bonds (1) Ionic Bonds Ionic substances are formed when an atom that loses electrons easily reacts with an atom that gains electrons easily. Na Na + + e- Loss of an electron e- + Cl Gain of an electron : Cl : . . . .- : Cl : . . . .- + Na + NaCl Combination to form the compound NaCl For ionic bonds, the energy of interaction between a pair of ions can be calculated by using Coulomb's law. The energy depends only on distance. 1 2 4 Q Q V r = o Types of Chemical Bonds (2) 09/08/10 Covalent Bond is the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms. Covalent bonding does not require atoms be the same elements but that they be of comparable electronegativity. Covalent bonds give an the angular relation between the atoms (in polyatomic molecules, does not apply to molecules like H 2 ). H:H H H or HH Types of Chemical Bonds (3) the tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons. Shared electrons are closer to atoms with greater electronegativity. Trends in EN In a group (column): EN decreases w/ increasing Z (# of protons) In a period (row): EN increases w/ increasing Z 09/08/10 Zumdahl Chapter 13 7 Electronegativity (EN) Dipole Moments Bonded atoms share electrons unequally, whenever they differ in Electronegativity HF: The F atom carries negative charge and the H atom positive charge of equal magnitude. The molecules align in an electric field. Polar molecules posses a dipole moment, Polar covalent bonds Covalent e.g., H 2 , Cl 2 N 2 Polar Covalent e.g., HF, H 2 O Ionic Bond e.g., LiF, NaCl Percent Ionic Character Covalent/Polar/Ionic Ionic vs. Covalent BondingIonic vs....
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This note was uploaded on 09/07/2010 for the course CHEM 1310 taught by Professor Cox during the Fall '08 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Chapter 6 bonding lecture notes - Chapter 6. Bonding 6.1...

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