Chapter 10 - Chapter 10 Properties of Solutions 17.1...

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Chapter 10 Properties of Solutions 17.1 Solution Composition 17.2 The Thermodynamics of Solution Formation (skip) 17.3 Factors Affecting Solubility 17.4 The Vapor Pressures of Solutions 17.5 Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression 17.6 Osmotic Pressure 17.7 Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions 17.8 Colloids GAS SOLID LIQUID Freezing Melting Sublimation Deposition Condensation Evaporation
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Colligative Properties of Solutions For Colligative properties, the difference between a pure solvent and dilute solution depends only on the number of solute particles present and not on their chemical identity. Examples Vapor Pressure Depression Boiling Point Elevation Melting Point Depression Osmotic Pressure
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Lowering of Vapor Pressure Vapor Pressure of a solvent above a dilute solution is always less than the vapor pressure above the pure solvent. Elevation of Boiling Point The boiling point of a solution of a non-volatile solute in a volatile solvent always exceeds the boiling point of a pure solvent Boiling liquid in equilibrium with its vapor at the external pressure. Boiling Point Vapor press = external pressure Normal boiling point Vap press. = 1 atm
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Phase diagrams for pure water (red lines) and for an aqueous solution containing a nonvolatile solution (blue lines). Elevation of Boiling Point & Vapor Pressure Depression T = K b m solute DT is the boiling point elevation K b is molal boiling - point elevation constant m solute is the molality of the solute in solution
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Solution Composition Solution: A homogeneous mixture (mixed at level of atoms molecules or ions Solvent: Solute: The major component The minor component The solute and solvent can be any combination of solid ( s ), liquid ( l ), and gaseous ( g ) phases. Dissolution: Two (or more) substances mix at the level of individual atoms, molecules, or ions.
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Solution Composition Mass percentage (weight percentage): mass percentage of the component = X 100% mass of component total mass of mixture Mole fraction: The amount of a given component (in moles) divided by the total amount (in moles) X 1 = n 1 / (n 1 + n 2 ) for a two component system X 2 = n 2 / (n 1 + n 2 ) = 1 X 1 or X 1 +X 2 =1 Mass Fraction, Mole Fraction, Molality and Molarity
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Molality m solute = moles solute per kilogram solvent = moles per kg or (mol kg -1 ) Molarity (biochemists pay attention) c solute = moles solute per volume solution = moles per liter of solution (mol L -1 )
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Factors Affecting Solubility 1. Molecular Interactions Review chapter 4 Polar molecules , water soluble, hydrophilic (water loving) E.g., Vitamins B and C; water-soluble Non-polar molecules , soluble in non-polar molecules, hydrophobic (water fearing) E.g., Vitamins A, D, K and E; fat-soluble
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Factors Affecting Solubility of Gases 1. Structure Effects 1. Pressure Effects
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This note was uploaded on 09/07/2010 for the course CHEM 1310 taught by Professor Cox during the Fall '08 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Chapter 10 - Chapter 10 Properties of Solutions 17.1...

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