Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 Acids and Bases 12.1 The Nature of...

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Chapter 12 Acids and Bases 12.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases 12.2 Acid Strength 12.3 The pH Scale 12.4 Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions 12.5 Calculating the pH of Weak Acid Solutions 12.6 Bases 12.7 Polyprotic Acids 12.8 Acid-Base Properties of Salts 12.9 Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H + Concentration (skip) 12.10 Strong Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H + Concentration (skip) 12.11 Strategy for Solving Acid-Base Problems: A Summary
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Acids and Bases and Their Reactions Definitions 1. Arrhenius Acids and Bases Acids are H + donors Bases are OH - donors 2. Arrhenius Broadened Definition Acids increase H + concentration or [H + ] increases Bases increase OH - concentration or [OH - ] increases 1. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases (1923) Acids donate H + Bases accept H + Arrhenius 1903 Nobel Prize
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Acids-Bases Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a substance that can donate a hydrogen ion (aka H + , proton). A Brønsted-Lowry base is a substance that can accept a hydrogen ion. Acids and bases occur as conjugate acid - base pairs .
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Conjugate Base - subtract an H + from the acid Conjugate Acid add H + to the base Examples 1.OH is the conjugate base of 1.H 2 O is the conjugated base of 1.H 2 O is the conjugated acid of 1.H 3 O + (or often shown as H + ) is the conjugate acid of
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Pairs 1 2 2 1 Acetic Acid Point of View #1 acid base Conjugate acid of H 2 O Conjugate base of CH 3 CO 2 H CH 3 CO 2 H + H 2 O H 3 O + + CH 3 CO 2 - Point of View #2 acid base Conjugate base of H 3 O + Conjugate acid of CH 3 CO 2 - CH 3 CO 2 H + H 2 O H 3 O + + CH 3 CO 2 - base base acid acid Acetate Ion CH 3 CO 2 H + H 2 O H 3 O + + CH 3 CO 2 -
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Nomenclature When H + is hydrated, it is H 3 O + and is called a hydronium ion . A hydronium ion has the same molecular geometry as NH 3 . 111.7° +
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There is Competition for the proton between two bases H 2 O and A If H 2 O is a much stronger base than A the equilibrium lies far to the right. If A is a much stronger base than H 2 O the equilibrium lies far to the left. HA + H 2 O H 3 O + + A HA = generic acid
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Acid Strength: graphical representation of the behavior of acids of different strengths in aqueous solution. A strong acid : equilibrium lies far to the right HA + H 2 O H 3 O + + A A weak acid : equilibrium lies far to the right HA + H 2 O H 3 O + + A A weak acid yields a relatively strong conjugate base
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Relationship of acid strength and conjugate base strength HA + H 2 O H 3 O + + A K a = [H 3 O + ][A - ] [HA]
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HA + H 2 O H 3 O + + A
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H 2 O + H 2 O H 3 O + + OH - Pairs 1 2 2 1 base base acid acid Autoionization of H 2 O Point of View #2 acid base Conjugate base of H 3 O + Conjugate acid of OH - H 2 O + H 2 O H 3 O + + OH - Point of View #1 acid base Conjugate acid of H 2 O #2 Conjugate base of H 2 O #1 H 2 O + H 2 O H 3 O + + OH - # 1 # 2 Amphoterism - an ion or molecule can act as an acid or base depending upon the reaction conditions
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Amphoterism - an ion or molecule can act as an acid or base depending upon the reaction conditions H 2 O + NH 3 NH 4 + + OH - 1.) Water in NH 3 serves as an acid acid acid base base 2.) Water in acetic acid serves as a base
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