Lecture_7 - Zumdahl Chapter 8 Chemical Bonding: General...

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1 Zumdahl Chapter 8 Chemical Bonding: General Concepts 1. Types of Chemical Bonds ± Chemical bonds forces that hold groups of atoms together to form molecules. ± Bond energy energy required to break the bond. When chemical bonds are formed to form molecules, the system of atoms can achieve the lowest possible energy by behaving in this way. IONIC BONDING Na (s) + Cl 2 (g) ⎯→ NaCl (s) white solid with m. p. 800 ° C ± Na + and Cl : ions held in the crystal lattice by electrostatic (Coulombic) forces. An ionic bond. ± The energy of the aggregate is lower than that of the separate atoms. ± An ionic compound results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal. ± Energy of interaction between a pair of ions: ± For NaCl, r = 0.276 nm E = 8.37 × 10 19 J. (q 1 and q 2 are unit charges +1 and 1) 19 12 qq E (2.31 10 J nm) r
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2 COVALENT BONDING Consider two H atoms approaching each other: ± Ionic Bonding: an atom loses electrons relatively easily, and transfers them completely to an atom that has a high
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This note was uploaded on 09/07/2010 for the course FAS chem 201 taught by Professor Sultan during the Summer '07 term at American University of Beirut.

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Lecture_7 - Zumdahl Chapter 8 Chemical Bonding: General...

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