Lecture_9 - Sample Exercise 8.8: ClF3, XeO3, RnCl2, BeCl2,...

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1 Sample Exercise 8.8: ClF 3 , XeO 3 , RnCl 2 , BeCl 2 , ICl 4 12. Resonance Sometimes, more than one valid Lewis structure is possible for a given molecule. Consider the nitrate ion, NO 3 (5 + 6 × 3 + 1 = 24 valence e s) . If this is the actual structure, then one bond should be shorter than the other two identical ones! Experimentally there is only one type of N — O bond in the nitrate ion! R E S O N A N C E
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2 ± All three structures are equally probable. ± The true structure of the nitrate ion is a resonance hybrid to which all three structures contribute; an average or a superposition of three resonance structures. ± Electrons are delocalized . Resonance compensates for the defective assumption of the LE model. Superposition Concept of FORMAL CHARGE: Consider the sulfate ion SO 4 2 : many Lewis structures are possible. ¾ One Lewis structure with single bonds ¾ More than one with double bonds ± How to decide? ± Which structure
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This note was uploaded on 09/07/2010 for the course FAS chem 201 taught by Professor Sultan during the Summer '07 term at American University of Beirut.

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Lecture_9 - Sample Exercise 8.8: ClF3, XeO3, RnCl2, BeCl2,...

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