Lecture_11 - sp2 hybridization Consider the ethylene...

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1 ± sp 2 hybridization: Consider the ethylene molecule: C 2 H 4 120 ° sp 3 orbitals certainly do not work, since the bond angle would be 109.5 ° . ↑↑↑ Why three hybrid orbitals? sp 2 p ¾ Three equivalent sp 2 hybrid orbitals, farthest apart from each other (120 ° ). ¾ Whenever an atom is surrounded by three effective pairs, a set of sp 2 hybrid orbitals are required, and thus formed. ¾ Whenever four effective pairs sp 3 hybrid orbitals.
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2 σ - bond π - bond
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3 σ - bond: along the inter-nuclear axis. Orbitals point toward each other. π - bond: off the inter-nuclear axis. Orbitals are parallel to each other. ± sp hybridization: Consider the carbon dioxide molecule: CO 2 ↑↑↑ p x p y sp ↑↑ ↑↑ ¾ Whenever an atom is surrounded by two effective pairs, a set of sp hybrid orbitals are required, and thus formed.
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4 ¾ In CO 2 , each oxygen has three effective pairs sp 2 hybridized. For each CO: 1 σ bond (between sp on C and sp 2 on O) and 1 π bond (between
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This note was uploaded on 09/07/2010 for the course FAS chem 201 taught by Professor Sultan during the Summer '07 term at American University of Beirut.

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Lecture_11 - sp2 hybridization Consider the ethylene...

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