Lecture_19a - COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES Def. Properties that...

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1 COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES Def. Properties that depend on the number of particles rather than the identity of the solute, in an ideal solution. 5. Boiling Point Elevation and freezing point depression A solution must be heated to a higher T than the boiling point of the solvent to reach a vapor pressure of 1.00 atm. A solution must be cooled down to a lower T than the freezing point of the solvent to start crystallizing. P Vapor pressure lowering: P = P° solvent P solution = P° solvent solvent χ solvent = P° solvent (1 −χ solvent ) P = solvent solute solute vapor pressure lowering Formulation of the boiling point elevation : T = k P = k P° solvent solute 0 m M m M n n n n n n solvent solvent solvent solute solvent solute solvent solute solute = = + 0 T = k P° solvent M solvent m solute T b = K b m solute K b molal boiling point elevation constant m solute total molality
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2 Freezing point depression: ¾ If a solute is dissolved in water, solution will freeze at T < 0 ° C. ¾
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Lecture_19a - COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES Def. Properties that...

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