Lecture_20 - Introduction: Basic Definitions in...

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1 Introduction: Basic Definitions in Thermodynamics ( θ ics ) • System part of the universe of special interest, or under investigation. • Surroundings remainder of the universe around the system. • Boundary separation (real or imaginary), between the system and the surroundings. Universe = System + Surroundings Open system a system that can exchange both matter and energy with its surroundings. Closed system a system that can exchange energy but not matter with its surroundings. Isolated system a system that cannot exchange neither matter nor energy with its surroundings. Types of systems: Atkins, 6 th Edition, Fig. 2.1 Thermodynamics deals with the study of the energy transformations.
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Zumdahl Chapter 16 Spontaneity, Entropy and Free energy 1.Spontaneous processes and the entropy: Spontaneous process a process that occurs without the intervention of external factors. It may be slow or fast . THERMODYNAMICS KINETICS Considers only initial and final states Depends on the pathway (activation energy, T , concentrations, catalysts) In a chemical reaction: H rxn E act.
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Lecture_20 - Introduction: Basic Definitions in...

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