Lecture_21 - Sample 16.3: Order in living cells is...

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1 Sample 16.3: Order in living cells is spontaneous: large molecules assemble from simple ones. Note that S sys. < 0 . S sys. + S surr. < 0 > 0 but | S surr. |> | S sys. | S univ. > 0 3. Effect of temperature on spontaneity: Consider: H 2 O (l) H 2 O (g) V m [H 2 O (l) ] = 18 mL V m [H 2 O (g) ] = 31 L (at 100 ° C and 1.00 atm) Much higher positional entropy in the gas Obviously, S sys. > 0. What about S surr. ? • Entropy changes in the surroundings are primarily determined by the flow of energy into or out of the system as heat. •If H < 0, the process is exothermic and hence, more thermal motion (K.E) in the molecules of the surroundings. ⇒∆ S surr. > 0 • Hence exothermicity is an important driving force for spontaneity! But it is not the sole factor. Entropy changes in the surroundings are primarily determined by the heat flow.
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2 Back to the example: H 2 O (l) H 2 O (g) H > 0 S surr. < 0 S
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This note was uploaded on 09/07/2010 for the course FAS chem 201 taught by Professor Sultan during the Summer '07 term at American University of Beirut.

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Lecture_21 - Sample 16.3: Order in living cells is...

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