10-Ling 122-13 - Varieties - Words & Collocations

10-Ling 122-13 - Varieties - Words & Collocations -...

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Unformatted text preview: Ling 122: English as a World Language – 13 Words & Collocations Readings: Y. Kachru & L. Smith, Ch 7 VARIETIES OF ENGLISH: Nativization Nativization In the previous two chapters, we saw how cultures adopt English either • as a lingua franca or auxiliary language within a country (e.g., India, Nigeria, Singapore, all Outer Circle countries) or • as a language of wider communication for use with speakers of other languages more globally (e.g., Japan, Thailand, China, all Expanding Circle countries). Nativization Nativization We also saw how, in the process of doing so, the varieties of English used in these contexts may change in terms of • Pronunciation Or These changes are the result of language contact and often transfer of linguistic features from the first languages of those cultures. • syntax Nativization Nativization These changes are often collectively referred to as ‘nativization’ (or ‘indigenization’): • The adaptation a language may undergo when it is used in a different cultural and social situation. • Indian English, Nigerian English, Singapore English, etc. for example, are said to have undergone nativization because changes have occurred in aspects of their phonology, and syntax. Nativization Nativization Nativization also occurs in the areas of • Lexicon (vocabulary) and • collocations (the ways in which words are regularly used together) Borrowings: Nativization of Lexicons Nativization Loan translations: • Into American English: cayote, bayou, canyon, depot, kowtow, chintz, etc. • Into other varieties of English: jitney (Phillipines), krengcai (Thailand), etc. • chewing stick (African varieties), sacred thread (India), head­tie (Africa), etc. Semantic shift: father, uncle/aunt (many varieties), beauty (Thai), seven (Thai), etc. Nativization of Lexicons Nativization Shifts in form class: tantamounts, doesn’t worth, etc. Productive derivational processes: prepone, overstand, downpress, etc. Neologisms (newly coined words): mozzie, pollie, chooch, etc. New idioms and metaphors: ‘to write it down in my head’ (South Africa), ‘Give me chance/way’ (Ghana), etc. From: Lowenberg, Non-native Varieties of English: Nativization, Norms, and Implication, pp. 5-6. Norms, Class Exercise: What do these mean? 1. My friend wants to go down the bus 2. Did you know that Richard is moving with Eunice? 3. Britain derecognized the DK in 1979. 4. This is an outstation call. 5. He overlistened to the boys’ conversation. 6. Most of the students here are bed­spacers. 7. Our son is England­returned. 8. You have to be careful with these been­to boys. 8 Answers Answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. My friend wants to go down the bus = get off Did you know that Richard is moving with Eunice? = courting Britain derecognized the DK in 1979.= withdraw diplomatic recognition This is an outstation call. = out of town He overlistened to the boys’ conversation. = eavesdropped Most of the students here are bed­spacers. = room renters (no board) Our son is England­returned. = come back from England You have to be careful with these been­to boys. = who have returned from England Class Exercise: Distinctive collocations and idioms noted in Distinctive Pakistan, Nigeria and Ghana (Cf. Crystal) Example Provide Meaning Senior Wash mouth Morning meal Baby lawyer Hear French Declare a surplus Take in Give me chance/ way I am not financial 10 Class Exercise: Distinctive collocations and idioms noted in Distinctive Pakistan, Nigeria and Ghana ANSWER KEY Example Gloss Senior elder Wash mouth brush teeth Morning meal breakfast Baby lawyer young lawyer Hear French understand Declare a surplus throw party Take in become pregnant Give me chance/ way let me pass I am not financial have no money 11 Class Exercise: Distinctive Features of STD Nigerian English Distinctive (From Changing English, p. 151) (From Changing STD Nigerian English STD American English 1. Equipments 2. Enable him do it 3. I am going to voice out my opinion 4. We shall discuss about that later 5. I congratulate you for your brilliant performance 6. The politicians and their supporters, they don’t often listen to advice. 7. A person who has no experience, can he be a good leader? 8. To barb 9. Invitee 12 Class Exercise: Distinctive Features of STD Nigerian English Distinctive (From Changing English, p. 151) (From Changing STD Nigerian English 1. Bush meat ‘We will hunt some bush­meat’ 2. White­cap 3. Environment ‘This environment is nice’. 4. At now ‘They have not arrived at now.’ 5. Off­head 6. To take the light 7. Social wake­keeping 8. To wet ‘I will wet my plants’ 9. Globe ‘Can you change the globe, please!’ 10. To land one’s speech 11. Juju music 13 Class Exercise: Distinctive Features of STD Nigerian English Distinctive (From Changing English, p. 151) (From Changing STD Nigerian English Bush meat White­cap chiefs Environment Bluff Off­head To take the light Social wake­keeping To wet Globe To land one’s speech Juju music STD American English game senior chiefs in Lagos whose rank is shown by the white cap neighborhood to give an air of importance from memory to make a power cut (electricity) feasting and drumming to water (flower) electric bulb to finish one’s speech 14 a type of dance music Codification Codification How do these changes become the standard form of Outer Circle varieties of English? Codification: use of this variety in media, literature, publication of style sheets, grammars, dictionaries, etc. Lexicography: The art and science of dictionary making Challenges to Codification Challenges There is a continuum or cline of varieties, ranging from less educated non­standard to educated varieties • • • Basilect – least standard Mesolect – colloquial Acrolect – educated variety Some items have only a very restricted use, that is, they are used for specific registers “Th-th-th-that's all folks!" Th-th-th-that's 17 ...
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