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Unformatted text preview: IdVRiN¬°. " F¬Ę¬£A7/(# C':ILAMic EaP¬§¬•e ALBERT Ii J"OI l/s¬°': tf ¬Ę ap4 Pc¬£¬§e. CHAPTER 2 ¬•h¬¶¬ß Form¬®¬©ion o¬™ ¬®n ¬ęm¬¨ir¬¶ THE SUCCESSION TO MUHaMMaD: THE CONQUEsT OF aN EMpIRE When Muhammad died, there was a moment of confusion among his followers. One of their leaders, Abu Bakr, proclaimed to the community: ¬°0 men, if You worship Muhammad, Muhammad is dead; if You worship God, God is alive¬°' Beneath God there was still a role to be Flled¬Ę that of arbiter of disputes and maker of decisions within the community¬£ There were three main groups among the followers of Muhammad¬§ the earlY companions who had made the h¬Ęjra with him, a group linked bY intermar- riage¬• the prominent men of Madina who had made the compact with him there¬¶ and the members of the leading Meccan families, mainlY of recent conversion¬ß At a meeting of close associates and leaders, it was one of the Frst group who was chosen as the Prophet¬®s successor (kh¬£l¬Ęf¬£, hence the word ¬©caliph¬™)¬ę Abu Bakr, a follower of the Frst hour, whose daughter ¬©A¬¨isha was wife to the Prophet¬≠ The caliph was not a prophet¬ģ Leader of the community, but n¬Įt in anY sense a messenger of God, he could not claim to be the spokesman of (ontinuing Revelations¬į but an aura of holiness and divine choice still lingered around the person and ofFce of the earlY caliphs, and theY did Caim to have some kind of religious authority¬Ī Abu Bakr and his successors soon found themselves called upon to exercise leadership ove¬≤ a wider range than the P¬≤ophet¬≥ There waS a universalism implicit in Muhammad¬īs teaching and actions¬Ķ he claimed universal au¬∂oritY, the h¬£ram which he established had no natural limits¬į in his last Years military expeditions had been sent against the BYzantine frontier lands, and he is supposed to haVe sent E¬∑I¬łsar¬Ļes to the rulers of the great states, calling on them to acknowledge his message¬£ When he died, the alliances he had made with tribal chiefs threatened to dissolve; some of them now rejected his prophetic ¬°¬° THE FORMaTION Of aN EMpIRE claims, or at least the political control of Madina¬£ ¬ļaced with this challenge, the community under Abu Bakr afFrmed its authority bY militarY action ¬Ľthe ¬ľwars of the r¬Ędda¬§); in the process an armY was created, and the momentum of action carried it into the fr¬Įntier regions of the great empires and then, as resistance proved weak, int¬Į their hearts¬£ BY the end ¬Įf the rei¬Ĺn ¬Įf the sec¬Įnd caliph, ¬ĺU¬Ņar ibn al√ÄKhattab ¬Ľ634√Ā44√ā, √Éhe wh¬Įle of √Ąrabia, part of the √Öasanian √Ü ¬Ņpire√á and the √ÖYrian and √Ü√ąYptian pr¬ĮVinces ¬Įf √Éhe BYzantine √Ümpire had been c¬Įnquered√Č the rest of the √Öasanian lands were occupied so¬Įn afterwards¬£ √än the space of a few Years, then, the political frontiers ¬Įf the Near √čast had been changed and the centre of political life had moVed from the rich and populous lands of the ¬ļertile √Ćrescent to a small town lYing on the edge of the wo√ćd of high culture and wealth¬£ The change was so sudden...
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course ENGL 124 at San Jose State.