10-Ling 122-2 - Why English

10-Ling 122-2 - Why English - Ling/Asia 122 English as a...

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Unformatted text preview: Ling/Asia 122: English as a Ling/Asia World Language - 2 World Why English? The Historical Context Based on David Crystal English as a global language Chapter 2 Origins – Old English 5th c. CE – Old English arrives in England from Northern Europe, displaces Celtic languages of Wales, Cornwall, Cumbria, Scotland Germanic Beowulf • Epic poem, authorship unknown, written in Old English in England circa 8th­11th c. C.E., set in Scandinavia • Written in the 11th c. C.E. The Lord’s Prayer Origins – Middle English 1066 C.E. ­ Norman Invasion Middle English – 1066­1470 Considerable borrowing from French Nobles from England fled north to Scotland 12th c. Anglo­Norman knights sent to Ireland 1380s­1400 – Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales 1420s­30s – Chancery Standard 1470 – Printing press brought to England Origins – Modern English 16th­17th c. C.E. – Early Modern English Great English Vowel Shift Shakespeare & King James Bible Shakespeare’s Sonnet No. 18 (published 1609) The First Diaspora – The U.S. The The 17th c. – the first settlements 17 • 1607 – Jamestown (VA) settlement • 1620 – Plymouth (MA) settlement 18th c. – immigration from northern Ireland, but also • Spanish, French, Dutch, German, Africa 19th c.­ massive increase in immigration • Irish (famine of 1840) • Germans, Italians (failed 1848 revolutions) • Central European Jews (1880 Pogroms) 2000 – Over 80% of Americans speak only English at home The First Diaspora - Canada The Canada 1497 – John Cabot to Newfoundland 1520 – J. Cartier to Nova Scotia, Quebec 18th c. – French defeated • • • Queen Anne’s War (1702­13) French & Indian war (1754­63) 1750s – French expelled from Nova Scotia 1776 – U.S. Independence Louisiana – Cajun Creole, Cajun food 21st c. – French a co­official language • British loyalists flee to Canada The First Diaspora - Caribbean The Caribbean 1517 – Spanish bring first African slaves to the West Indies 17th c. – start of the ‘Atlantic triangle’ of slave trade • • • • • 1619 – first 20 slaves brought to Virginia 1776 – half million slaves in N.A. 1865 – 4 million slaves in N.A. Gave rise to creole English, but also Creole French, Spanish, Portuguese Rise of pidgins Australia Australia The First Diaspora – The New Zealand 1770 – James Cook to Australia By 1838 – 130,000 prisoners transported to Australia By 1850 – 400,000 ‘free’ settlers in Australia 2002 – Australian population at 19 million 1769­70 – Cook explores N.Z. 1790s – whalers, traders settle there 1814 – Missionaries arrive in N.Z. 1840 – Official colony established in N.Z. 2002 – N.Z. population at 3.8 million The First Diaspora – South Africa The South 1652 – Dutch colonists to South Africa 1795 – British explore S.A. 1806 – British establish control of S.A. 1820 – First British settlement 1822 – English made the official language 1870­1900 – Diamond & gold industries 1993 – English, Afrikaans, 9 indigenous languages named as ‘official’ English spoken by less that 10% of pop. Afrikaans seen as language of repression The Second Diaspora – South Asia The South India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan 1612 – First trading station at Surat, India 1765­1947 – the Raj (period of British sovereignty) 1960s – ‘Three language’ formula • 1835 – English education system in India • 1857 – Universities of Bombay, Calcutta, Madras • English an ‘associate’ official language 21st c. – 200 million speakers of English(?) Pakistan – English an ‘associate’ official language The Second Diaspora – Africa The Africa 18th c. – only Dutch had a permanent settlement in Africa By 1914, Britain, France, Germany, Portugal, Italy, Belgium had colonized almost all of Africa. After WWII – realignment of colonial powers in Africa 1960s – most gain independence West vs. East Africa The Second Diaspora – West Africa The West The rise of English­based creoles ­ Krio Sierra Leone Ghana (formerly Gold Coast) Gambia Nigeria Cameroon Liberia • Founded in 1822 as homeland of former slaves • Republic since 1847 The Second Diaspora – East Africa The East From 1880s – European powers vie for influence/ colonies in East Africa English as a Language of International Communication in • • • • • • • • • Botswana Kenya Lesotho Malawi Namibia Tanzania (formerly Zanzibar & Tanganyika) Uganda Zambia (formerly Northern Rhodesia) Zimbabwe (formerly Southern Rhodesia) The Second Diaspora – The SEAsia & the South Pacific SEAsia Spanish­American War Hawai’i 1940s­ Trust Territories of the Pacific Malay Peninsula • Malaysia, Singapore • Guam, Northern Marianas, (Puerto Rico) • The Philippines • Palau, the Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia Hong Kong Papua New Guinea Other Pacific former colonies • Fiji, Kiribati, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, The Solomon Islands • American Samoa English – A World View World status of English is due to: The spread of English as three concentric circles • • • Inner circle Outer / extended circle Expanding circle • Expansion of British colonial power, beginning in the 17th century and peaking at the end of the 19th century • Emergence of U.S. as leading economic & military power in the late 20th century The Three Circles of English Inner Circle Outer Circle Expanding Circle ...
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