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Stearns Ch. 8 The Rise of Islam_Civilization in the Middle East

Stearns Ch. 8 The Rise of Islam_Civilization in the Middle East

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Stearns Ch. 8 THE RISE OF ISLAM: CIVILIZATION IN THE MIDDLE EAST -Muhammad intended to perfect a religion that focused on the power of a single god more clearly than an other religions -New faith of Islam all-powerful divinity -Muhammad viewed self as prophet who spoke in God’s voice -Built on other religions in middle east The Advent of Islam -Muhammad born around 570 CE in Mecca -Sought purer statement of God’s divinity; ex: complex doctrines such as Christian Trinity -Argued that Allah was the one true God -Jewish Old Testament & work of Jesus provided basis for the true religion -Called upon to organize religion & persuade others (Muslims) -Muhammad fled Mecca 622 CE to Medina - Hejira : year 1 in the Islamic calendar -Built mosque for Muslim worship -Attempted to join Muslims, Christians, and Jews in a single community -Led Medina’s government in war w/ Mecca, 630 -Medina won & Arab tribesmen began to negotiate peace w/ Muhammad -Told followers to pray towards Mecca -Muhammad died in 632 CE -Muslim holy book: Qur’an - Loyal Muslims direct word of God w/ no contradiction -God’s statement of perfect religion including religious obligations (pillars of faith) -Guidance for proper life - Hadith: based on multiple recollections of prophet’s sayings & other rules & regulations for Islamic community (about Muhammad) -Provided further guidance for upright life -Abu Bakr Muhammad’s caliph (successor) -Turned regional state into war machine -Used small armies to take care of rebellions against rule of Muslim states -Result: Arab people became firmly converted -Shiites: favored direct descendant of Muhammad over Abu Bakr (Sunni) -Religion & desire for material gain -Muhammad encouraged military effort in name of Islam -Anyone killed in jihad , or holy war in defense of the faith, automatically attained an afterlife in heaven -Concept of Jihad emphasized internal struggle for religious purity Patterns of Islamic History -635 CE Islam defeated Byzantine & conquered Syria & Palestine -Also defeated Persians -Three day long battle -Arab poets chanted war songs & pious Muslims recited the Qur’an -Arabs attacked Egypt & established new capital on the Nile
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Stearns Ch. 8 THE RISE OF ISLAM: CIVILIZATION IN THE MIDDLE EAST -7 th century invaded rest of N. Africa conquering or assimilating native Berber peoples -Opposition eased as people converted to Islam & gradually accepted Arab language -Invaded Spain & defeated weak Germanic kingdom there w/ aid of Berber troops in 711 CE -Frankish leader Charles Martel defeated Muslims in 732 CE -Strain of Muslim troops & supplies, not Frankish power -Arab conquest ended by 2 nd quarter of 8 th century; setbacks -Umar (2 nd caliph), began process of forming larger government apparatus -One source of rule was leadershiop of Arab military -Islamic belief that all land belonged to Allah, justified seizure of property -Most Arabs content collecting tax instead -Tax became main financial support for Arab ruling class & government of caliphate -Islamic conquerors tolerant of other religions
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