Stearns Ch.7 The Classical Period- Directions, Diversities, and Declines by 500 C.E.

Stearns Ch.7 The Classical Period- Directions, Diversities, and Declines by 500 C.E.

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Unformatted text preview: Stearns Chapter 7 THE CLASSICAL PERIOD: DIRECTIONS, DIVERSITIES, AND DECLINES BY 500 C.E.-Basic Themes (pg. 115): -Integration & Expansion-Commercial, Political, & Cultural outreach (Expansion)-Pull new civilizations together in more than name?-Between 200 & 500 C.E.-Decline/Collapse: 1 st China, 2 nd Mediterranean, 3 rd India-Signaled end of classical era-Developments outside classical orbit had on ways (rhythms), gained new prominence as great civilizations falterd.-3 rd historical theme-Beyond The Classical Civilizations (pg . 116-119):-Development of the 3 great civilizations is the central thread in world history during classical period-significant changes also occurred in the other parts of the world-Borders of some major civilizations (NE Africa, Japan, N Europe) had some of the same changes as classical world, although partly autonomous.-Americas & other, Cultures evolved in entirely independent way-All cases; changes during classical period set stage for more important links later on-Southeast Asia access to civilization through contacts with India during classical period-Regional Kingdoms already established-Agricultural economies familiar on principal islands of Indonesia & mainland-Participation in wider trade patterns developed through Indian merchants-Hindu & particularly Buddhist religion & art also spread from India-^^Case of outright expansion of civilization w/o creation of unified culture^^-Sub Saharan Africa; spread of government & new cultural forms to NE’rn Afria south of Egypt Stearns Chapter 7 THE CLASSICAL PERIOD: DIRECTIONS, DIVERSITIES, AND DECLINES BY 500 C.E.-Society continued to develop durting classical period, in Kush & other Centers-Kindom of Kush defeated by rival kingdom Axum, ~300 B.C.E.-Axum fell to another regional kingdom, Ethiopia-Axum & Ethiopia: had active contacts w/ E. Mediterranean world until fall of Rome-traded with region for several centuries-Some Ethiopians converted to Judaism after interaction with Jewish merchants-small minority remain Jewish today-Greek speaking merchants, considerable influence (Christianity brought to Ethiopia by 4 th century C.E.)-Ethiopian Christian church; cut off from mainstream Christianity, flourished in isolation to modern times-Until late 20 th century, Ethiopia oldest continuous monarchy in world-Not much influence from kingdoms of upper Nile on later history of sub- Saharan Africa.-knowledge of iron working spread=expansion of agriculture in other parts of the continent-Patterns of strong, ceremonial kingship (divine kingship), surfaced in other parts of Africa later-Kushite writing did not spread=impact of this 1 st case of civilization below Sahara was limited-Most of Africa below Sahara, but N. of great tropical jungles, major development was further extension of agriculture-Well organized villages arose-Farming took earliest root on southern fringes of the Sahara Stearns Chapter 7 THE CLASSICAL PERIOD: DIRECTIONS, DIVERSITIES, AND DECLINES BY 500 C.E....
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Stearns Ch.7 The Classical Period- Directions, Diversities, and Declines by 500 C.E.

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