ch1 - Chapter 1 Introduction: Some Preliminaries Chemistry...

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Chapter 1 Introduction: Some Preliminaries Chemistry The study of matter its nature, its structure (how it is related to atoms and molecules ), properties, transformations, and its interactions with energy Gold Mercury The Scientific Method The general process of advancing scientific knowledge through e xperiments, o bservations, l aws, h ypotheses, or t heories is called the Scientific Method . - systematic approach to research The Scientific Method Experiment - practical scientific procedure. Observation qualitative; quantitative Hypothesis tentative explanation . Law concise statement; equation . Theory a tested explanation . Matter It has mass and occupies space Mass vs Weight Weight is the force that gravity exerts on a body or sample (an apple that falls is pulled down by the earth’s gravity ) weight = force = mg g: gravitational acceleration Mass is a measurement of the quantity of matter in a body or sample
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Classification of Matter Physical States (3 states of matter, Br 2 ) Solid definite shape and volume made of particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) held close together and rigidly in place reasonably well understood. Example: Graphite — layers of carbon atoms reflects physical properties. Liquid definite volume; indefinite shape made of particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) held close together but allowed to move relative to each other fluid and may not fill a container completely not well understood Gas no definite V or shape takes shape and volume of container made of particles (atoms or molecules) separated from each other by large distances; move very fast (high KE) fluid (variable shape; able to flow) good theoretical understanding (gas laws) Classification of Matter subcategories based on composition and properties Mixture combination of pure substances in which the components retain their identities (no reaction); variable composition can be separated into simpler mixtures and/or pure substances by physical methods
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Heterogeneous Mixture inconsistent composition eg. pizza, carpet, beach sand, . .. Homogeneous Mixture solution consistent composition eg. air in a room; glass of tap water Physical Separation Methods mechanical: sand and iron filings filtration: sand and water extraction: washing clothes, decaffeinating coffee distillation: gasoline from crude oil chromatography: chlorophyll pigments in leaves Classification of Matter: Elements basic substances of which all matter is composed pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances. made up of atoms ~ 117 known at this time given name and chemical symbol Aluminum Bromine Element Symbols 1, 2 or 3 letters: first letter always capitalized usually first letter(s) of name H hydrogen C carbon O oxygen N nitrogen Na sodium Cl chlorine Mg magnesium Al aluminum P phosphorus
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course CHM 2045 taught by Professor Vxv during the Spring '10 term at College of the Canyons.

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ch1 - Chapter 1 Introduction: Some Preliminaries Chemistry...

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