ch4 - Chapter goals Chapter 4 Perform stoichiometric...

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Chapter 4 Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions Chapter goals Perform stoichiometric calculations using balanced chemical equations Molarity and its use in solution stoichiometry. Identify common acids and bases and write acid-base reactions in aqueous solution. Write equations for the common types of reactions in aqueous solution. Identify oxidizing and reducing agents and oxidation-reduction reactions from determining oxidation numbers. Balancing Chemical Equations done by inspection best to begin with largest molecule for combustion reactions involving organic compounds , balance C atoms first, then H atoms, and O last. convert any fractional coefficient to whole number by multiplying entire equation by the denominator of fraction change coefficients, NOT subscripts!! Examples N 2 H 4 (aq) NH 3 (g) + N 2 (g) -balance H 3 N 2 H 4 (aq) 4 NH 3 (g) + N 2 (g) -balance N Example As 2 O 3 (s) + KI(aq) + HCl( l ) AsI 3 (s) + KCl(aq) + H 2 O( l ) -balance As As 2 O 3 (s) + KI(aq) + HCl( l ) AsI 3 (s) + KCl(aq) + H 2 O( l ) -balance I As 2 O 3 (s) + KI(aq) + HCl( l ) AsI 3 (s) + KCl(aq) + H 2 O( l ) -balance K Example As 2 O 3 (s) + KI(aq) + HCl( l ) AsI 3 (s) + KCl(aq) + H 2 O( l ) -balance Cl As 2 O 3 (s) + KI(aq) + HCl( l ) AsI 3 (s) + KCl(aq) + H 2 O( l ) -balance H
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Combustion Reactions NH 3 (g) + O 2 (g) NO(g) + H 2 O(g) N atoms are balanced Balance H atoms NH 3 (g) + O 2 (g) NO(g) + H 2 O(g) Balance N atoms NH 3 (g) + O 2 (g) NO(g) + H 2 O(g) Balance O atoms , NH 3 (g) + O 2 (g) NO(g) + H 2 O(g) Multiply entire equation by 2 NH 3 (g) + O 2 (g) NO(g) + H 2 O(g) Work on these!! P 4 S 3 + Br 2 P 4 S 5 + PBr 3 P 4 O 10 + PCl 5 Cl 3 PO CH 3 PCl 2 + LiH (PCH 3 ) 5 + LiCl + H 2 NaO 2 + CO 2 Na 2 CO 3 + O 2 O 2 + GeF 4 + F 2 O 2 GeF 5 H 2 C 2 O 4 + KMnO 4 + HCl CO 2 + MnCl 2 + H 2 O + KCl FeSO 4 + KMnO 4 + H 2 SO 4 Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + MnSO 4 + H 2 O + K 2 SO 4 Stoichiometry -calculations involving balanced chemical equations General Steps: (learn!!!!!) need a balanced chemical equation convert mass to moles -determine limiting reagent if necessary - calculate number of moles of desired substance (reactant or product) -convert to desired units (mol; mass; volume; kJ, C) Mole to Mole Calculation How many moles of O 2 are required to react with 8.60 mol of propane, C 3 H 8 ? C 3 H 8 (g) + 5O 2 (g) 3CO 2 (g) + 4H 2 O(g) Plan: use O 2 :C 3 H 8 mole ratio in equation as a conversion factor to find mol O 2 . 8 3 2 8 3 H C mol 1 O mol 5 H C mol 8.60 Moles of CO 2 formed??? 8 3 2 8 3 H C mol 1 CO mol 3 H C mol 8.60 8.60 mol ?? Calculations Involving Masses Calculate the mass of oxygen required to react with 19.22 g of propane, C 3 H 8 ? MM = 44.09 g/mol C 3 H 8 (g) + 5O 2 (g) 3CO 2 (g) + 4H 2 O(g) Plan: a) convert mass of propane to moles of propane b) use O 2 :C 3 H 8 mole ratio to find mol O 2 c) convert mol O 2 to mass O 2 8 3 8
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course CHM 2045 taught by Professor Vxv during the Spring '10 term at College of the Canyons.

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ch4 - Chapter goals Chapter 4 Perform stoichiometric...

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