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Exam 1 Terms - Terms I Chapter 1 a Prehistoric archaeology...

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Terms I. Chapter 1 a. Prehistoric archaeology i. Archaeology- study of ancient human behavior based on surviving material finds ii. Archaeology of ancient societies that were non-literate iii. Extend back at least 2.6 million years b. Human culture i. Culture is the distinctive adaptation system used by human beings 1. Part of our way of adapting to our environment ii. A society’s traditional systems of beliefs and behavior as understood by individuals and the members of social groups as manifested in individual or collective behavior c. Material culture i. The things that people interact with, modify, create and use in daily life ii. May be eradicated for different reasons 1. Buddhas destroyed in late 90s in Afghanistan d. Systemic cultural contexts vs. archaeological contexts i. Systemic 1. An initiative to study systems from a holistic point of view 2. An attempt at developing logical, mathematical, engineering, and philosophical frameworks in which systems can be studied and modeled e. Taphonomy i. Processes involved with fossilization ii. The study of decaying organisms over time and how they become fossilized iii. Natural preservation of archeological evidence f. Archaeological evidence i. Archaeological record
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1. Archives of the past made up of surviving finds resulting from ancient human behavior ii. Environmental, material, documentary, oral iii. Artifacts- portable objects; used by humans iv. Features- immobile human modifications of environment v. Remains- human, plant, animal vi. Sediments- g. Synchronic vs. diachronic approaches i. Synchronic 1. Analyzes a particular something at a given, fixed point in time 2. Does not attempt to make deductions about the progression of events that contributed to the current state but only analyzes the structure of that state, as it s. ii. Diachronic 1. Analyzes the evolution of something over time h. Processes of social change i. Discovery- shared human perception of an aspect of reality which already exists; adds something new to the culture ii. Invention- new combination of existing things; an idea made manifest; set of useful social behaviors adopted by people and passed on to others; cash into ideas iii. Innovation-anything new to a culture, whether it has been adopted or not; ideas into cash iv. Diffusion of innovation- interpersonal communication to diffuse new ideas or innovations v. Social change II. Chapter 2 a. Evolution i. Change in inherited traits of a population through successive generations b. Natural selection
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i. Heritable traits that make it more likely for an organism to survive and successfully reproduce, become more common in a population over successive generations ii. Key mechanism of evolution c. Adaptation i. the evolutionary process whereby a population becomes better suited to its habitat ii.
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