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Exam 2 book notes

Exam 2 book notes - I Chapter 4 Europe and Eurasia a The...

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I. Chapter 4: Europe and Eurasia a. The Upper Pleistocene i. Began in 126,000BP and coincided with the last interglacial and glacial cycles of the Ice Age 1. Gradual glaciation and deglaciation in cycles of cold, dry weather prevailing over northern latitudes ii. 18000BP sea levels fell to about 130m below modern levels 1. Led to the exposure of huge continental shelves in SE Asia and elsewhere (the Bering Strait was dry land) b. Modern humans in southwest Asia i. Modern Homo sapiens spread from Africa to SW Asia by about 100,000ya 1. Small population created a reduced genetic variability ii. Neanderthals and modern people were living at the same time and coexisted there without biological or cultural interaction for thousands of years c. Upper Paleolithic Transition i. Neanderthals Homo sapiens 1. Replacement theory ii. Blade technology 1. Logical result of millennia of gradual adjustment to more mobile lifeways iii. Cultural explosion 1. Nothing to distinguish their behavior or material culture from that of earlier humans a. As much as 60k years passed before there were dramatic changes in human life b. Blade technology in SW Asia by 50kya c. Art in Europe 40kya d. First settlement of Australia 45kya 2. Increased economic specialization 3. Restructuring of social relations
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4. Major technological revolution 5. Development of fully articulate speech 6. Full cognitive fluidity 7. Superior intellectual capabilities pushed earlier populations into extinction d. Modern humans in Europe i. Environmental conditions kept out settlers until 45kya after a brief spell of more temperate conditions 1. Require new artifacts and more sophisticated hunting skills to exploit northern environments to the fullest ii. Blade technology 1. Portable cores and efficient small blanks highly adaptive for late Ice Age hunter-gatherers exploiting large hunting territories close to and around ice sheets iii. After 30kya H. sapiens was effectively the only human form in Europe, and upper Paleolithic blade technologies were universal 1. Modern people sometimes called Cro-Magnon iv. Changes 1. Tendency toward higher population densities after 35kya 2. More regular social gathering 3. Stylistic variation in stone artifacts, lay in precise and scientifically recorded contexts in time and space; represents different territorial or social boundaries?
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