Exam 2 notes

Exam 2 notes - I. Upper Paleolithic a. *humans and...

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I. Upper Paleolithic a. *humans and Neanderthals share the FoxP2 gene i. Has to do with language ii. Mitochondrial DNA comes from the mom (100s to 1000s of copies in each cell) iii. No contribution to humans is shown from examining mitochondrial DNA b. Origins of modern humans i. What is a modern human? 1. All members of the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens 2. Includes all living humans ii. Modern human traits 1. Globular braincase 2. Reduced brow ridges 3. Reduced body mass 4. Unique pelvis shape 5. Vertical forehead 6. Pronounced chin 7. Narrow trunk 8. Reduced tooth size iii. 1868- Southern France Cro-Magnon man found 1. Was the first of the Homo sapiens fossils c. The spread of modern humans in the old world i. Multi-regional model 1. Evolutions from Homo erectus in several places 2. Gene flow between geographically separated populations prevented speciation 3. All living humans derive from the species Homo erectus that left Africa
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4. Natural selection in regional populations responsible for regional variants (races) 5. Says humans were all in different places and evolved into the same thing (unlikely) 6. Emergence of Homo sapiens not restricted to any one area 7. This model is not very likely ii. Recent Out-of-Africa model 1. Homo sapiens sapiens developed in Africa 200-100kya radiated to other continents 2. After homo erectus migration out of Africa different populations became reproductively isolated 3. Homo sapiens ultimately migrated out of Africa and replaced all other human populations without interbreeding 4. Modern human variation is a relatively recent phenomenon 5. Backed by research in mitochondrial DNA 6. Homo sapien sapien- a. first appearance in Africa 200,000BP b. Europe- 40,000 BP c. Asia- 90,000 BP d. Australia- 40,000 BP 7. Homo sapiens sapiens were the first species to live on every livable continent (excludes Antarctica) 8. Supported by molecular DNA and archaeological evidence a. Genetic evidence i. Living humans are very much homogeneous genetically ii. Homogenetic contrasts with our living relatives (chimps) iii. Highest degree of variation found in Africa populations (because more time spent there to change) iv. Small founding populations in Africa 400-100kya
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b. Archeological evidence i. Difference between the archaeology records of modern humans in Africa and Neanderthals in Europe includes 1. Variability in stone tools of Africa 2. Elaborate bone tools in Africa 3. Evidence of fishing and collecting shellfish in Africa 4. Artwork in Africa ii. Herto site, Ethiopia 9. Modern humans at 160 kya a. Klasies River Mouth Caves, South Africa 10. Seems to be the story that is true 11. Early modern humans in the Middle East a. Humans first arrived in the Middle East about 100 kya b. Humans did not expand beyond the Middle East before 60kya c. Neanderthals become extinct in the Middle East 40kya d. Humans and Neanderthals may have co-existed in the region for 60kya e. **We co-existed from 100-40kya f. **we probably interbreeded, but were there children? No evidence with
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course ANTH 2050 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Exam 2 notes - I. Upper Paleolithic a. *humans and...

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