Exam 2 terms

Exam 2 terms - Exam 2 I. Chapters 3&4 a. Middle...

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Exam 2 I. a. Middle Paleolithic i. Homo neanderthalensis thrived in Europe between 300,000 and 30,000 years ago and the earliest anatomically modern humans appeared around 195000 years ago b. Neanderthal physiology i. Long term inhabitants of Europe and Eurasia ii. Robustly built humans with retreating foreheads, projecting faces and sometimes brow ridges iii. Expert hunters, capable of intellectual reasoning iv. Bun shaped skull v. Shorter forearms than modern humans but walked upright just as nimbly vi. Hunted large game 1. Expert knowledge of animal habits- must come within close range c. Mousterian i. Far more complex toolkit than Acheulian predecessor with many regional variations ii. Style of predominately flint tools associated with Homo neanderthalensis and dating to the middle Paleolithic era iii. Made of flakes (points and scrapers) iv. Most were composite- made of more than one component 1. A point, a shaft and the binding that secured the head to the shaft to make a spear d. Levallois i. A type of Mousterian technique that produces broad, flat flakes, large blades and triangular points- highly developed e. Funerary behaviors i. Neanderthals sometimes buried their dead in small pits, sometimes with grave goods
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ii. Amud cave- infant found in a natural niche in the side of the cave with the upper jaw of a red deer f. Modern humans i. Refers to all members of the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens 1. Includes all living humans ii. Modern human traits 1. Globular braincase, reduced brow ridges, unique pelvic shape, reduced body mass, vertical forehead, pronounced chin, narrow trunk, reduced tooth size iii. Cro-Magnon man found in southern France in 1868 1. First fossil found of modern human iv. Evolved in tropical Africa by 150,000 years ago v. By 90,000 years ago they had settled in Southwestern Asia vi. 45,000 years, they developed a fully modern intellectual abilities and new toolkits and had by then settled in New Guinea and Australia vii. During the late Ice Age, they adapted to the extreme cold of Europe and Eurasia, crossing into the Americas and temperatures rose and ice sheets retreated g. Models on the origins and spread of modern humans i. Multi-regional model 1. Evolutions of homo erectus in several places 2. Gene flow between geographically separated populations prevented speciation 3. All living humans derive from the species Homo erectus that left Africa 4. Natural selection in regional populations responsible for regional variants (races) 5. Says humans were all in different places and all evolved into the exact same thing 6. Not very likely ii. Out of Africa model 1. Homo sapiens sapiens developed in Africa 200,000 – 100,000 ya
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a. Radiated to other areas 2. After homo erectus migration out of Africa populations became reproductively isolated 3. Homo sapiens ultimately migrated out of Africa and replaced all other human populations without interbreeding 4. Modern human variation relatively recent 5. Backed by research in mitochondrial DNA
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Exam 2 terms - Exam 2 I. Chapters 3&4 a. Middle...

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