Exam 3 Book Notes

Exam 3 Book Notes - Exam 3 Book Notes I. Chapter 14 a....

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Exam 3 Book Notes I. Chapter 14 a. Civilization i. Urbanized, state level societies ii. Pre industrial civilizations 1. Relied on manual labor rather than fossil fuels such as coal 2. Based on cities, with large complex social organization 3. Economies based on the centralized accumulation of capital and social status through tribute and taxation 4. Advances toward formal record keeping, science, mathematics, as well as some sort of written script 5. Impressive public buildings and monumental architecture 6. Some form of all-embracing state religion in which the ruler played a leading role b. Cities i. Population- larger and denser than that of a town or village ii. Large and relatively dense settlement with a population numbered in at least the thousands iii. Specialization and interdependence between the city and its rural hinterland iv. Degree of organizational complexity well beyond that of a small farming communities c. State i. Political unit governed by a central authority whose power crosscuts bonds of kinship ii. Emergence of states theories 1. V. Gordon Childe and the Urban Revolution a. Assumed that the civilization had originated along the Nile, despite discovery of Sumerian civilization
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b. Second revolution saw the development of metallurgy and the appearance of a new social class of full-time artisans and specialists who lived in much larger settlements: cities c. Agricultural techniques became more sophisticated as a higher yield of food per capita d. Large food surpluses, diversified farming economies, irrigation agriculture 2. Ecology and irrigation a. The ecological potential of river floodplains i. Rich fertile soils b. Ecological diversity of local environments i. Diversified agricultural economies tended to focus on fewer, more productive crops c. Adoption of irrigation agriculture i. Supported far higher population densities ii. Intensification of agriculture means a major modification of the environment, usually irrigation 3. Technology and trade a. Raw materials like obsidian and copper b. Usually technology was more beneficial in transportation than in production (the wheel is Mesopotamia and the ship in Egypt) c. Trade i. Any form involves two elements 1. The goods and commodities being exchanged and the people doing the exchanging ii. Exchange system 1. Gift giving- the exchange of gifts that reinforce a social relationship between both individuals and groups as a whole iii. Bartering 1. The exchange of commodities or goods
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2. Reciprocity 3. Redistribution 4. Warfare a. Coastal valleys in Peru b. Coercive theory i. Of state origins, argued that amount of agricultural land in these valleys was limited and surrounded by desert ii. A series of predictable events led to the development of states 5. Cultural Systems and Civilizations a. Urban life and preindustrial civilization came into existence gradually during a period of major social and economic change 6. Environmental change II. Chapter 15: Early Civilizations in Southwest Asia
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Exam 3 Book Notes - Exam 3 Book Notes I. Chapter 14 a....

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