Exam 3 notes

Exam 3 notes - I . Civilization a. Define i. Civilization...

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I. Civilization a. Define i. Civilization ii. Chiefdom iii. State iv. City b. Origins of civilization and state models i. Early models ii. Systematic and ecological models iii. Social models c. Nesopotamic, Indies d. Concept of civilization i. First used in 18 th century (Adam Ferguson, 1767) ii. “not only individual advances from infants to manhood, but the species itself from rudeness to civilization” e. Western, ethnocentric view- idea of progress of civility f. Use in archaeology- urban state-level societies g. Characteristics of civilizations i. Cities ii. Centralized economy: accumulation of capital and social status iii. Advances in record keeping iv. Elaborate public buildings v. State religions
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vi. Concept of city i. Size and population ii. Specialization and interdependence iii. Core-periphery interaction iv. Centralized institutions to regulate public affairs v. Embedded into state system vii.Concept of state i. Fagan (page 335) “political unit governed by a central authority whose power crosscuts bands of kinship” ii. New axis of control emerges based on allegiances to ruling elite iii. State= new degree of social complexity i. Scale ii. Differentiation iii. Intensification iv. integration iv. How and why do states emerge? i. Much debate in archaeology since the 1920s ii. Overall, shift away from i. Early uni-linear evolutionary perspective to multi-linear models ii. Unicausal to multicausal models iii. Ecological to social/agency models viii. Neo-evolutionary classifications
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State State Chiefdom Stratified Tribe Ranked Band Egalitarian Elman Services (1962,1975) Morton Fried (1960,1961) ix. Chiefdom i. An autonomous political unit comprising a number of villages or communities under the permanent control of a paramount chief ii. At least two social classes iii. Power of ruling elite rooted in kinship x. State i. Political unit governed by a central authority whose power crosscuts bonds of kinship ii. State formation i. Six classic theories i. Urban revolution 1. V. Gordon Childe (1930s-1950s) 2. Urban revolution followed the Neolithic revolution 3. Three elements a. Metallurgy b. Full time specialists c. Cities ii. Irrigation
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1. Irrigation and hydraulic models a. Karl A. Wittfogel (1920-1950s) b. Irrigation supports larger populations c. Bureaucracy to coordinate large scale projects iii. Technology and trade iv. Warfare 1. Robert Carneiro (1970s) 2. Coercive or circumscription theory a. The state formation that explains how the constraints of the environment interact with population pressures, and warfare to form states 3. Case study in Peru 4. Environments limited in land (circumscribed) v. Cultural systems 1. Several variables part of integrated systems (rather than single variable) 2. Robert McCormick Adams (1960s) a. Proposed that there was no single condition behind the complex societies of ancient cities and states; they were a product of numerous interrelated conditions, especially social organization and craft specialization 3. Three factors a. Irrigation agriculture b. Increased warfare
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c. Local resource availability
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course ANTH 2050 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Exam 3 notes - I . Civilization a. Define i. Civilization...

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