Final terms

Final terms - Final terms 1. Prehistoric archaeology a. The...

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Final terms 1. Prehistoric archaeology a. The study of non-literate ancient societies; at least 2.6 mya 2. Human culture 3. Material culture a. Artifacts and features from specific time frame and within geographical area 4. Systemic cultural contexts vs. archaeological contexts a. Archaeological context- an event in time which has been preserved in the archaeological record b. Systemic context- initiative to study systems from a holistic view point 5. Taphonomy a. Study of decaying organisms over time and how they become fossilized 6. Archaeological evidence a. The natural materials recognized by the archaeologist as significant evidence, all of which are collected and recorded as part of the research b. Difference between the archeology records of modern humans in Africa and Neanderthals in Europe : variability in stone tools in Africa, elaborate bone tools in Africa, evidence of fishing in Africa, artwork in Africa 7. Synchronic vs. diachronic approaches a. Synchronic- views linguistic phenomena at one point in time b. Diachronic- study of language change over larger period of time 8. Processes of social change a. Adaptation system used by human beings b. Invention- involves creating a new idea and transforming it into an artifact or other tangible innovation that has survived c. Diffusion- the label for those processes by which new ideas or cultural traits spread from one person to another or from one group to another, often over long distances d. Migration- the movement of people and is based on a deliberate decision to enter new areas and leave old ones
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9. Evolution a. Change in the inherited traits of a population of organisms through successive generations 10. Natural selection 11. Adaptation a. Evolutionary process whereby a population becomes better suited to its habitat 12. East African Rift Valley a. Great Rift Valley b. Continuous geographic trench that runs from northern Syria in SW Asia to East Africa c. Rich source of fossils d. Rapidly eroding highlands filled the valley with sediment e. Favorable environment for preservation of remains i. Lucy 13. Hominin family tree a. Primates i. Anthropoids 1. Apes, humans, monkeys ii. Prosimians 1. Lemurs, tarsiers and other premonkeys iii. Hominins 1. Includes modern humans, earlier human subspecies and their direct ancestors iv. Ponginae 1. Our closest living primate relatives 14. Bipedalism a. Configured to endurance rather than speed i. Began spending more time feeding on food resources on the ground
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b. Evolved well before the large human brain or development of stone tools c. Specializations are found in australopithecines d. Freeing hands for carrying or tool use, sexual dimorphism in food gathering, changes in climate and habitat, reduce the amount of skin exposed to the sun 15. Australopithecines a. Hominins that evolved in eastern Africa around 4 millions years ago before spreading throughout the continent and eventually becoming extinct 2 million years ago b. Anamensis, afarensis, africanus
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Final terms - Final terms 1. Prehistoric archaeology a. The...

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