Notes test three

Notes test three - Anthropology 2050 1 Test Three Test...

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Anthropology 2050 Test Three 1 Test Three Material Neolithic/Bronze Age transition: The Chaleotithic 4,000 BC: groups in Balkans experiment with copper tools Copperwork Copper-soft Smelting process Alloy with tin= Bronze Chaleolithic- period when copper was used (but not Bronze) The Otzi: iceman- famous and well preserved man of the Chalcolithic found by tourists in Alps He had 47 tattoos on elbow and back of knee- maybe accupunture? Tattoos- were patterns lines and dots He had leather gears and a grass cloak Snow shoes Pouch on belt of a kit to start fire Had cuts in wrists and chest and a blow to the head- maybe a fight Bronze Age differentiation Neolithic vs. Bronze Age leaders Neolitic Old individuals Connection with ancestors Bronze Age Middle age individuals Status through political military actions Charistatic leaders Beyond connection with ancestors Exotic goods War leaders coming to be Neolithic Megaliths Circle thing Avebury Stont circles surrounded by a moat type thing
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Anthropology 2050 Test Three 2 Two important site: Stonehenge, Avebury What’s a Megalith? Greek “megas” (great) and “lithos” (stone) Built in Mesolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Bronze Age Erroneans connetions with celtic druids (Cambry 1805) he wrote the book Thought to be place of secret rituals Various types of megalith Stones not worked just set in the ground in this example In Egypt Naptu? Megaliths in Europe Dolmen: upright orthostats Passage grave: subterranean burial chamber with passageway Gallery graves: burial chambers arranged axially Divided space between the exterior and interior Usually small entrance to graves Menhirs: standing stones, can be aligned (Carnac) Long lines of stones Stone circles (Stonghenge, Avebury) Megalithic tomb rituals Buring of offering/grave goods (food burning) Antechambers/forecourts: rituals separation between life and death Ritual movements (bendind, kneeling, zigzagging) These were very special places Megalithic period barrows Earthwork: ditches, banks, terraces, mound, etc. Natural hill sculpted into maze, spiral patterns, etc. Ritual movements central to funerary practices Functions and purposes of megaliths Boundary/territory markers (agent of social interactions) Reminder of past events (collective memory) Integral part of ritual life (astronomical, funerary, etc.)
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Anthropology 2050 Test Three 3 Stonehenge Salisbury plain, southwest England 2900-1600 BC (late Neaolithic/Chalcolithic through early Bronze Age) Excavated in 1950’s World Heritage Site since 1986 Stonehenge’s Construction Phase 1 (2900 BC) Circular ditch Aubrey holes Phase 2 (2900-2500BC) New timber structures- structures built with wood to experiment Phase 3 (2500-1600 BC) 80 megaliths, center of ditch Blue stone from Southwest Wales Why did people build Stonehenge and what did they use it for? Initial use as burial ground
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Notes test three - Anthropology 2050 1 Test Three Test...

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