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anth 2050 final

anth 2050 final - o Basics Science of material systems...

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o Basics Science of material systems Systemic: living societies Archaeological contexts: past societies who left material remains behind Perspectives Synchronic: reconstruct how people lived at a single time Diachronic: reconstruct sequences of events; aka culture history Evidence Systemic cultural context: i.e. Tabashi Festival; the reason that something occurs which explains why the archaeological evidence is found in the way it is Archaeological context: i.e. fire pit from 2000 years ago Culture Material: any physical remains left behind Human/cultural: language, religious beliefs, any part of culture that is not tangible Taphonomic process: what survives is a fragment of fragmentary remains that enter the archaeological record Culture as processes Innovation Diffusion Migration Archaeological processes Finding sites Surface sensing (most common technique): systematically walk across landscape, aerial photos, ask people, landscape features, etc. Remote sensing: non-evasive techniques Excavation b/c it's a destructive process, requires: Rigorous record keeping Site conservation Stratigraphy: deeper strata believed to be more ancient than the layer above (superimposition) Possible objectives: Determine function of the site; use horizontal excavation Determine sequence of occupation of site; vertical excavation Dating Relative: put things in order of older or younger Stratigraphy Geological Typological sequences (seriation): ceramics or other artifacts Styles, forms, technologies Things change with time Absolute: calendar years Dendrochronology: growth rings, tree ring sequences, master sequence; most precise method Radiocardon: measures decay of C14 to C12 Half-life: 5730 years Can only be used on organic materials Years BP (before present) Difficult to date after 40,000 years; cannot date after 60,000 years o Human origins
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Evolution Biologically: variation will provide some advantages to adapt better, selection, change Natural selection: Individuals within species vary Some variations passed down to offspring More offspring than can survive Survival and reproduction not random Variations more suited often survive to reproduce or reproduce more Variation triggered by mutation Cultural evolution: non-biological means of adapting to natural and social environment Tools, clothing, language, writing Bipedalism o Cradle of humanity: Africa East african rift valley From Malawi in south Africa to Turkey and Syria 3 main characteristics that make it valuable for researching early archaeology Area that fills up with sediments which preserves fossils Tectonically active, erosion exposes sites Volcanically active o Hominid family tree 6mya hominid line diverges from lineage comprising chimps Australopithecines (great ape of South) Earliest well-known hominid ancestors 4-2.5mya
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