final arch 2050 3

final arch 2050 3 - World Arch. 2050 METHODS AND ORIGINS OF...

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World Arch. 2050 METHODS AND ORIGINS OF SITES 1. How to find sites -surface evidence: systematically walk across land, aerial photos, ask people, landscape features -subterranean evidence: remote sensing (ground penetrating sonar) 2. How to Study Sites -locate and map visible surface -non-evasive: remote sensing -excavation: traditional -destructive process -rigorous record keeping/ site conservation efforts -myriad excavation -research objective -type of site -time and money 3. Basic Excavation Concept -stratigraphy: deeper strata (deeper the layers of earth, the more ancient they are) -stratigraphic deposits necessary to understand sequence of events -excavation records always represent a SAMPLE of a site 4. Excavation Objectives -determine age of site -function of a site (horizontal excavation) -sequence of occupation of a site (vertical excavation = diatronic excavation)
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-simultaneous investigation of all aspects (super imposition) 5. Considerations When Excavating a Site -goals -costs -ethics 6. Excavation Units -placement and size: depend on research objects -vertical excavation by layers -natural layers -arbitrary layers 7.Information Recording -sifting -type of soil/color of soil -draw findings in context -bag/tag/clean remains -analyze 8. How To Date Things -2 MAIN METHODS 1.relative dating (stratigraphy): put things in order (older to younger) 2. absolute dating: specific dates and years (C-14=most famous method—How much time elapsed since specific event?) 9. Relative Dating
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-METHODS: -stratigraphy -geological events -typological sequences (ceramics serrations—changes during time based on what is popular at the time) 10.Absolute Dating -METHODS: -calendar years/historical dates -annual cycles (dendrochronolgy—tree growth rings in sequence) -radioactive clocks (radiocarbon, potassium-argon) 11. Radiocarbon Clock -ticker: decay of carbon-14 (C-14) to nitrogen-14 -startbutton: death of organism - display: ration of Carbon-14 to Carbon-12 12. Radiocarbon Ticker -carbon-14 is the radioactive isotope of carbon (extra neutrons in nucleus) -radiocarbon decay occurs at a constant rate (half life of 5730 years) -When an animal is dead, it is constantly decaying. Thus, the radiocarbon ticker is triggered at death and the radiocarbon clock starts. 13. Radiocarbon Reset Button -all living organisms contain carbon in their cells (c-12, C-13, C-14 is all absorbed from the atmosphere) -cells continuously grow, die and replaced. Carbon is continuously replaced while the animal is alive.
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-When the animal dies, the carbon is no longer replaced. 14. Radiocarbon Display
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final arch 2050 3 - World Arch. 2050 METHODS AND ORIGINS OF...

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