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Interpersonal Attraction

Interpersonal Attraction - Chapter 7 Interpersonal...

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Chapter 7 – Interpersonal Attraction: Meeting, Liking, Becoming Acquainted Interpersonal attraction – a person’s attitude about another person. Attraction involves an evaluation along a dimension that ranges from strong liking to strong disliking. Internal Determinants of Attraction: The Need to Affiliate and the Basic Role of Affect 1. The Importance of Affiliation for Human Existence – based in evolution Ability to communicate/work together Need to affiliate is hard-wired A. Individual Differences in the Need to Affiliate Need for affiliation – basic motive to seek and maintain interpersonal relationships. Fairly stable trait; varies across people O stracism – acts of excluding or ignoring Used to regulate social behavior Reactions- especially females- depressed mood, anxiety, hurt feelings, efforts to restore relationships, and eventual withdrawal Situational Influences on the Need to Affiliate We’re especially likely to seek out the company of others after some sort of disaster. We also want to be around others when we think something bad is about to happen. Schachter (1959) Participants anticipated either mild or painful electrical shocks. Given choice to wait alone or with others. Greater the anticipated pain, the more they wished to wait with others. Heightened needs for reassurance, distraction, information, and social comparison. 2. Affect and Attraction A. The Direct Effect of Emotions on Attraction – occurs when someone does/says something that makes you feel good or bad. B. The Associated Effect of Emotions on Attraction – this refers to the fact that our mood when we interact with someone affects how we feel about that person.
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External Determinants of Attraction: Proximity and Observable Characteristics 1. The Power of Proximity AKA propinquity Functional distance – how often people’s paths cross Explore similarities, sense liking, perceive social unit Why does proximity breed liking? A. Availability – people who are close to us are available to us for relationships B. Anticipating Interactions –like people more when we anticipate we’re going to see them again C. Mere exposure –the more exposure, the more we like it 1. Adaptive significance- if we’ve seen you before, we know what to expect; unfamiliar objects could be dangerous (evolutionary advantage) 2. Predictability- know what to expect and like predictability because it lets us believe we’re in control 2. Physical Attractiveness - the combination of characteristics that are evaluated on a continuum as beautiful or handsome at the most attractive extreme and unattractive at the other extreme Other things being equal, we tend to like attractive people more than their less attractive peers. How important is physical appearance to our first impressions of people? In field experiments investigating people’s actual behavior – rather than what they say they do – people overwhelmingly go for physical attractiveness.
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