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Psychology_ch12 - Ch12 Groups and Individuals Consequences...

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Ch12 – Groups and Individuals: Consequences of Belonging Group - a collection of people who are perceived to be bonded together in a coherent unit Face-to-face contact Virtual groups Internet friends are good, but not as helpful as IRL ones Entiativity –extent to which a group is perceived as being a coherent entity. Low entiativity – college students in US High entiativity – romantic couples and families People change in groups – new patterns of behavior, tasks, roles (even kids). Don’t act the same way as when they’re outside group Social Structure 1. Roles – behaviors indiv occupying specific positions within a grp are expected to perform Division of labor: explicit or implicit Zimbardo, Stanford prison experiment 1973 - Researchers, led by Philip Zimbardo, created a mock prison in 1973 in a laboratory basement. Random selection. Within a brief time, the "guards" and "prisoners" became totally absorbed in their respective roles. As the guards grew more aggressive/abusive, the prisoners became passive and apathetic/depressed. Finally, after only 6 days, the experiment had to be halted; prisoners underwent nervous breakdowns 2. Status – position or rank within group. More power, higher pay, ego 1
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Expectation states theory = group members want to achieve certain goals and are willing to confer high status on members who can help the group succeed/fulfill goals 3. Social norms – shared rules and expectations about behavior a. Romantic love in girls 6-8 th grade b. Had to be concerned about getting a bf, but not too concerned c. Pay too much attention “boy-crazy” d. Not enough attention “lesbians” e. 7 th grade – Norm of Exclusivity – if one girl likes him, the rest aren’t allowed to f. Severe depression if kicked out of group g. Norms may be informal or explicit 4. Cohesiveness – all factors that cause group members to remain in group. More cohesiveness, longer lasting the group a. Liking (they like each other, more cohesion) b. Quality of group interactions = don’t stay in a group where our time is wasted c. Instrumental goals of group – if they match our goals, we’re more likely to stay d. Discourage leaving – cost of leaving may be too high, or there may be no alternative Effects of the Presence of Others
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Psychology_ch12 - Ch12 Groups and Individuals Consequences...

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