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Psychology_ch8

Psychology_ch8 - Ch 8 Social Influence Changing Others...

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Ch 8 – Social Influence: Changing Others’ Behavior Conformity: Group Influence in Action Social Influence – efforts by one or more individuals to change the attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, or behaviors of one or more others. Western culture independence Expect people to make moral choices based on what they themselves think is right and wrong. (Jail) Believe in democracy , governments and other organizations act most wisely when they allow each person to express his or her views. People’s judgments/behavior influenced by what they believe others think - Ex: adolescents and drugs/sex - Do friends do it? - Consequences – will mom or dad find out? Sports – drug tests Conformity – changing attitudes/behavior to adhere to existing social norms. No one orders/suggests it Just look around see what others are doing, then adjust own behavior Conforming - acting at odds with one’s beliefs or perceptions because other people are acting in that way. Social Norms - The rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. Failure to follow leads to punishment (exclusion) Injunctive Norms – behaviors perceived as being approved by others 1
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What you’re supposed to do Staying faithful to spouse Descriptive Norms – how others are actually behaving What they’re actually doing Cheating on spouse Explicit Norms – written or spoken only. Lawsom Implicit Norms – not openly stated (don’t talk in elevator, don’t talk in men’s restroom) A. Asch’s Research on Conformity: Social Pressure – The Irresistible Force? You sign up for a psychology experiment, and on a specified date you and seven others arrive and are seated at a table in a small room. Seating is psychological – you’re 2 nd to last. You’re only real participant (the rest—confederates). You don't know it at the time, but the others are actually associates of the experimenter, and their behavior has been carefully scripted. You're the only real subject. The experimenter arrives and tells you that the study in which you are about to participate concerns people's visual judgments. The experimenter asks all of you, one at a time, to choose which of the three lines on the right card matches the length of the line on the left card. The task is repeated several times with different cards. On some occasions the other "subjects" unanimously choose the wrong line. What would you do? It’s obviously A, but others aren’t. 1/3 went along Why did the subjects conform so readily? Didn’t want to stand out. Actually thought majority was right B. Factors Affecting Conformity 1. Cohesiveness – degree of attraction felt by indiv toward influencing group Closer you feel to them, more likely u’ll conform 2. The need for social respect – want to avoid criticism, need for social respect Can’t criticize me if I’m doing what everyone else is doing 2
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3. Informational conformity – using others as guidelines 4. Group size – how many ppl are doing it?
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