Psychology_ch11

Psychology_ch11 - Chapter 11 Aggression Simplest definition...

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Chapter 11 - Aggression Simplest definition of aggression = any behavior that hurts others. But this definition ignores the intention of the person who does the act, and this factor is critical. Aggression is defined as behavior directed toward the goal of harming another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment. Diff b.w Prosocial and Antisocial 1. Prosocial aggression - dictated by social norm (spanking kid) 2. Antisocial aggression – unprovoked criminal acts (hurt others) 3. Sanctioned aggression – not required by social norms, but within their bounds (woman fighting back if she gets attacked) Another useful distinction is between aggressive behaviors and aggressive feelings such as anger. possible to have one without the other Hostile aggression – the act of aggression stems from feelings of anger and is aimed at inflicting pain . Instrumental aggression – aggression is a means to some goal other than causing pain. (tackle someone in football game. Aim was to stop him from reaching goal) Theoretical Perspectives on Aggression A. The Role of Biological Factors 1
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Instinctual Theory Freud assumed that we have an instinct to be aggressive. Eros – instinct towards life Thanatos – instinct towards death A part of our human makeup can never eliminate it (but can control it) Aggression is cathartic –express ur anger (don’t hold it in) However, catharsis may relax inhibitions If u honk at first person in traffic, easier to honk at second one Konrad Lorenz Fighting instinct - humans have an inborn tendency towards aggression, linked to evolution Evolutionary psychology Although most scientists no longer accept the idea that aggression derives from a death instinct, most concur that aggression springs from inherited tendencies that human being share with many other species. Evolutionary Psychology - Inherit tendencies, not specific behaviors Help males get mates and females protect young Problem = human aggression is more complex than most animal aggression More intelligent animals more likely to seek revenge Aggression runs in families (animal and humans) Can breed for aggression Damage to the limbic system can increase 2
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Defensive aggression – heightened aggressiveness to stimuli that are not usually threatening or a decrease in the responses that normally inhibit aggression. Frontal lobes (Medulla?)– tell u when to stop being aggressive Drive theories – theories suggesting that aggression stems from external conditions that arouse the motive to harm or injure others. Frustration –interference with or blocking of the attainment of a goal. Frustration-Aggression hypothesis – suggests that frustration is a very powerful determinant of aggression. (something is blocking us from our goal!) C. Modern Theories of Aggression: Social Learning Perspective and Generalized Aggression Model 1) Social Learning Perspective – we learn to be aggressive just like we learn all the other tools of our culture – through direct experience or by observing the behavior of others .
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