02acidbase-2010 (1) - Acids and Bases Rayner Canham Chapter...

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1 Acids and Bases Acids and Bases Rayner Canham Chapter 7 of 4 th Edition Suggested Problems: 3 rd or 4 th Edition: 7.5, 7.7, 7.9, 7.13, 7.15, 7.17, 7.21, 7.25, 7.29, 7.31, 7.39, 7.47 Petrucci: Chapters 16 and 17, 9 th edition Suggested Problems: Chapter 16: 53, 55, 57,64-67, 69,70,71,72, 84 Chapter 17: 23,27,29,53,55
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2 What do you remember about 1 st year acid / base ? What is pH? What is [H + ] of neutral water? What is the pH of neutral water? Is the pH of neutral water always 7 ?
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3 pH pH = - log [H + ] pOH = -log [OH - ] Neutral water p[H + ] = p[OH - ] = 7 Neutral water [H + ]=[OH - ] = 10 -7 M Rain water: slightly acid (CO 2 ) Ground water: slightly basic (carbonate/bicarbonate)
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4 What is an acid? Arrhenius ? Bronsted-Lowery ? Lewis ? Hard/Soft ?
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5 Acids and Bases: Definitions Acids and Bases: Definitions Svante Arrhenius (1884): Theory: Acids: contain hydrogen ions (H + ) Bases: contain hydroxide ions (OH - ) Assumption of Arrhenius Theory: Solvent is assumed to have no effect. This is WRONG ! HCl in water conducts electricity HCl in benzene Does not conduct electricity (1859 – 1927)
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6 Acids and Bases: Definitions Acids and Bases: Definitions Br Br ønsted- Lowery Definition: ønsted- Lowery Definition: Acids: proton donors donors (e.g. HCl, HF, H 2 CO 3 ) Bases: proton acceptors acceptors (e.g. OH - , NH 3 , N 2 H 4 )
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7 More accurately, there is a competition between two substances for the proton: HF (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + F - (aq) acid acid base base “The acid does not ‘donate’ the proton any more willingly than you would ‘donate your wallet or purse to a mugger.” HF is the acid because it gives up a proton more readily than H 2 O gives up a proton. H 2 O is the base because it accepts a proton more readily than HF accepts a proton.
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8 Lewis Acids/Bases Lewis Acids/Bases Acid: Acid: a substance that can a pair of electrons. Bases: Bases: a substance that can a pair of electrons. B F F F B is electron deficient N H H H
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9 Who are the strong aqueous acids ? HClO 4 HCl HI H 2 SO 4 HBr HNO 3
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10 Who are the some common weak acids ? CH 3 COOH (acetic) H 3 PO 4 (phosphoric) CO 2 (carbon dioxide / carbonic) HOCl (hypochlorous) C 6 H 8 O 7 (citric) HF (hydrofluoric) HCOOH (formic)
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11 Who are the strong aqueous bases ? LiOH NaOH KOH RbOH CsOH Ca(OH) 2 Sr(OH) 2 Ba(OH) 2
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12 Who are the weak aqueous bases ? NH 3 (ammonia) NaHCO 3 (baking soda) CaCO 3 (limestone)
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13 Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs: Definitions Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs: Definitions Every acid has a conjugate base and every base has a conjugate acid. HF (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + F - (aq) HF (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + F - (aq) A conjugate acid/base pair differs by only a proton (an H + ion).
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14 Water as an Acid or a Base Water as an Acid or a Base Water can act as an acid or a base: it is amphiprotic (H 2 O will give up a proton more easily than NH 3 will give up a proton.) HF (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + F - (aq) Water as a base: Water as an acid: NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq)
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02acidbase-2010 (1) - Acids and Bases Rayner Canham Chapter...

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