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final project - EML 5104 Classical Thermodynamics,...

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Unformatted text preview: EML 5104 Classical Thermodynamics, Spring 2010 Use as cover sheet Names (Print): ___________________________________ UF ­ID: ___________________________________ Final Project IGCC power plant Report due 29 April (preferably 21 April) This is an open ­ended project. There is not one single ‘correct’ solution. The items listed below serve as a guideline but other approaches are possible. You are not required to complete each individual item. You may choose to focus on certain aspects (e.g., it is perfectly ok to study exclusively the CC part or the gasification part ), add tasks, or just try to solve the complete problem step by step. You may choose to work alone or in teams of up to three. Grading will be adapted to the team size. On April 29 (preferably April 21) a concise (maximum 6 pages, font size 11) final report is due. It should state all assumptions and reference sources used. Additional materials in electronic form (programs, spreadsheets, animations, etc.) are welcome. The final report will be graded according to: logical structure (10 %), clarity of presentation (10 %), thoroughness, completeness, and mathematical and physical soundness of analysis (45 %), creativity (25 %) quality and completeness of literature review (10 %). The goal of the final project is to apply the concepts learned during the course to a 350 MW integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. An IGCC power plaint is a combined gas ­vapor power cycle that uses coal derived synthesis gas (a mixture of H2 and CO) as a fuel. These tasks may serve as a guideline during the project. a) Familiarize yourself with the concept of combined gas ­vapor cycles (CC) and integrated gasification combined cycle power plants. Divide the process into two major part: i) combined cycle(CC), ii) gasification. b) M+S Chp 9.10 (EDGE) is a good starting point for the CC part. Discuss the advantages of CC plants as compared to pure steam or gas processes. What are the main components? Draw layout of a CC power plant. c) Define the system boundaries for the CC part. List all mass and energy flows to and from the system. Where possible make reasonable assumptions about the TD state at inlets and outlets and the temperature of the heat flow interactions. Justify these assumptions. At this point, assume that heat is supplied to the combustor from an external source. d) Reasonable assumptions can be made about the inlet states of the steam and the gas turbine. E.g., inlet temperatures are limited by material constraints associated with the turbine blades. From a theoretical point of view inlet temperatures should be as high as possible (why?). Discuss and make justified assumptions. e) Make assumptions about the outlet pressures of the steam and gas turbines respectively. Justify. f) Ideally expansions and compressions should be isentropic. In reality, irreversibilities occur. Account for irreversibilities by assuming isentropic efficiencies for the turbines, the compressor and the pump respectively in order to fix the remaining states of the CC cycle. Discuss the concept of isentropic efficiencies. g) Assume that the net power output of the plant is 350 MW, that the gas turbine directly powers the compressor, and that the steam turbine directly powers the EML 5104 Classical Thermodynamics, Spring 2010 h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) pump. Calculate all relevant mass flow rates and the rate of heat added in the combustor. Let’s now look at the gasification part of the system. It consists primarily of an air separation unit that separates air into N2 and O2 and a gasifier that produces SynGas (CHxOySz + a H2O + b O2 ↔ CO + c H2 + d H2S). Consider the air separation unit. How is air separation carried out on an industrial scale? What is the minimum amount of work necessary to separate 1 kg of air, what is the amount of work necessary in real, industrial scale processes? Consider the gasification process. Assume bituminous coal is used. Find approximate mass or molar analysis in literature and calculate x, y, and z as well as a, b, c, and d. Draw the layout of the gasification stage. What are the most important components? Make reasonable assumptions about inlet conditions and the pressure level in the gasifier. Justify. Calculate the temperature at the outlet of the gasifier. Calculate the equilibrium composition in the gasifier as a function of temperature and pressure. Make a contour plot of the reaction extent, ε, as a function of T and p. Now, connect the two parts of the system. Replace the heat flow to the combustor by air and SynGas flows. Assume complete, adiabatic combustion with air. What is the temperature at the outlet of the combustor? Probably the temperature at the outlet of the combustor is too high for the turbine blades. How can they be reduced while still using the energy contained in the reactants? Draw a revised plant layout. Calculate the rate of coal consumption in kg/s. ...
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