Study Guide

Study Guide - Chapter 1: Intro and Overview Qualitative...

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Chapter 1: Intro and Overview Qualitative (Descriptive) Data: focuses on many variables, interprets the situation as a whole, and useful to create theories. Quantitative (Experimental/Correlation) Data: focuses on a few predictor variables, has a clear definition of how variables are measured, and useful to test theories. Three Reasons to Learn about Child Development 1. Gain information and understanding that can help parents raise their own children. 2. Gain insights into social-policy issues related to children and help society adopt policies that promote children’s well-being. 3. Better understand human nature in general. Nature: our biological endowment. Ex: physical appearances, personality, intellectual ability, mental health, specific preferences. Nurture: our environments that influence our development, both physical and social. Ex: the womb, our homes, schools, communities, and the people we interact with. Continuous Development vs Discontinuous Development: Naturalistic Observation vs Structured Observation Validity: the degree to which a test measures what it was intended to measure. Internal Validity: if effects observed are actually because of the conditions of what the researcher was testing. External Validity: if effects observed are beyond the particulars of the research. Reliability: if different measurements of the same test are consistent. Interrater Reliability: how much agreement there is in the results of a test between the different testers. Test-Retest Reliability: how similar behaviors or tests are on two or more occasions.
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Correlation: Experimental Design: A “True” Experiment Needs: 1. random assignment 2. a control group Quasi- Experiment: a design having some, but not all the characteristics of a “true” experiment. Usually random assignment is missing. Experimental Designs 1. Longitudinal : same subject observed at different ages (downer: expensive). 2. Cross-Sectional : subjects at different ages observed at one time (downer: cohort effects). 3. Mircogenetic : same children studied repeatedly over a short period of time. Chapter 3: Biology and Behavior Genome: the complete set of genes for any organism. Genotype: the genetic material an individual inherits. Phenotype: the observable expression of the genotype, physical characteristics and behavior. Chromosomes: molecules of DNA (two stands). Genes: sections of chromosomes or strands of DNA which are the basic unit of heredity in all living things. Also code for proteins. 1. Cytosine 2. Thymine 3. Uracil 4. Guanine 5. Adenine Alleles: two or more different forms of a gene. Homozygous vs Heterozygous: Norm of Reaction: since your genotype and your environment continuously interact, a certain genotype can develop different in a different environment.
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Phenylketonuria (PKU): a disorder related to a defective recessive gene on chromosome 12 that prevents the metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine. If the consume this, it can cause impaired brain development and severe mental retardation. Behavior Genetics:
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Study Guide - Chapter 1: Intro and Overview Qualitative...

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