lecture 7

lecture 7 - EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES 80 Professor Berry...

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EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES 80 Professor Berry 2/10/10 Lecture 7 ASUC Lecture Notes Online is the only authorized note-taking service at UC Berkeley. Do not share, copy or illegally distribute (electronically or otherwise) these notes. Our student-run program depends on your individual subscription for its continued existence. These notes are copyrighted by the University of California and are for your personal use only. D O N O T C O P Y Sharing or copying these notes is illegal and could end note taking for this course. ANNOUNCEMENTS Last time we talked about climate and how climate affects vegetation. We talked about organisms and how they grow and how they need nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphates. We also talked about the release of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrous oxides. When we burn organic matter we also release particles in addition to these gases. These particles are bad for your health if you breathe too much of them. We see that there is a release of greenhouses gases through natural decay and burning things. These slides will be posted on bSpace. After this lecture, I will post a bunch of stuff about the rules and regulations that the government wants to pass regarding the topic of today’s lecture, fossil fuels. LECTURE In today’s world , we realize we are running out of oil slowly, but we are not running out of coal. Fundamentally, we generate electricity in the same way. All we do is boil water to create steam, which goes through a turbine. The turning motion of the turbine in an electromagnetic field generates electricity. In fact, right next to the tennis courts on campus, we have a plant that is doing just this. People bought this land from the university to generate electricity. In this plant, the boiling of water generates steam. However, there is extra steam that the fans can’t capture, which keeps the heating systems in the dorms running. It is this steam that you see coming up from the vents on campus as well. This is called cogeneration . The company uses the first layer of steam, and we use the extra steam, which is secondary. Now, we can look at what is used for fuels. One of the fossil fuels we use is coal . Coal is made from the remains of plants that died millions years ago. Coal starts off as a swamp with a lot of vegetation around. Depending on the type of plant, the plants take in the nutrients they need from the water, but also take in other materials such as lead, mercury or other metals. These other materials cause adverse health effects when coal is burned. Peat is the first step in forming the organic material. It is where all the plants have rotted and decayed but the carbon is mostly there. Peat is made up of 50% carbon. Over time, we let geology do its business, and the
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lecture 7 - EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES 80 Professor Berry...

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