cognitive science complete notes

cognitive science complete notes - Page 1 of 12 What is...

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What is knowledge? Leyton defines it: Knowledge is causal explanations. So, a cognitive system is something that forms and manipulates causal explanations. Causal explanations and memory are essentially equivalent. 1.1 Introduction How is memory related to causal explanation? A dent in a garbage can tells you something dented it. Specifically, the shape. You extract info from the past, showing the garbage can has ‘memory’ You derive info about the past (aka memory) by causally explaining how things got to the way they are One converts objects into memory by causal explanation, and all memory is like this. Memory is: Physical object That has certain state in present Which an observer causally explains We say observer converts object into memory The object could be in external environment (garbage can) or internal (neurons) Announcements: In an effort to provide the Highest Quality of Notes possible, please feel free to call First Class Notes with any comments or suggestions on these notes. 828.7600 ____________________________________________________________________________________ Why do we need memory? The Fundamental Constraint: you have access only with the present Leyton argues this constraint determines existence and structure of mind 1.2 Process-recovery problem Mind always face with only present, so with present must recover past Must carry out this task: History recovery / process-recovery problem Recover history from X, where X is an object in present. Because x is in present, it has no duration and is atemporal How can we recover past? It can’t be observed, therefore ANY arbitrary past can be conjecture. One needs a unique past. One needs Unique Recoverability Constraint: Rules for recovering present must guarantee as much as possible a unique past 1.3 Process Directionality Page 1 of 12
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Unique recoverability forces the following constraint: Unidirectionality constraint: Processes are defined in only one direction Consider twisting. Normally defined as “hold one end, twist other”. But if you twist a twisted paper, it’ll turn into straight paper. But no one would ever say straight paper is twisted. Reason: Twisting is understood as only going in one way: from straight to nonstraight. Not the reverse. Therefore Twisting is defined unidirectionally. Unidirectionality allows unique recoverability of past, because from a nonstraight object in present you can recover unique straightness in past. Does not work in reverse. 1.4 Fundamental Proposals Recovery of process possibly only if it leaves memory. Many don’t. Many wipe out memory (e.g. cleaning) Since our indistinguishable transformation was reflection, the item is reflectionally symmetric. The rectangle is indistinguishable under the group of reflection transformations.
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course PSYCH 305 taught by Professor Ingate during the Spring '07 term at Rutgers.

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cognitive science complete notes - Page 1 of 12 What is...

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