03~chapter_02

03~chapter_02 - Chapter 2 Systems Approach and Systems...

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1 Chapter 2 Systems Approach and Systems Engineering Project Management for Business, Engineering, and Technology Definition of System A system is an organized or complex whole; a group of parts interacting in a coordinated way . 1. The parts of the system affect the system and are affected by it 2. The group of parts does something 3. The group is of particular interest System Concepts and Principles Natural versus Human-Made Systems Natural systems came into being by natural processes (e.g., animal organisms and planetary systems). Human-made systems are designed and operated by people (e.g., communication systems and human organizations). Projects exist for the purpose of creating or enhancing human-made systems (or altering natural systems). System Concepts and Principles Goals and Objectives Human-made systems are designed to do something; they have goals and objectives that are conceived by people. In designing a human-made system, the place to start is by defining the goal of the system and a hierarchy of objectives that relate to the aspects the system. System Concepts and Principles Elements and Subsystems Systems can be broken down into smaller parts. These parts in combination form “the assemblage of parts” that constitutes the system. The smallest part of a system is an element . The parts of the system might themselves also be systems; these are called subsystems . A subsystem is a system that functions as a component or part of a larger system. A Company as a System Company Personnel Production Research and Development Scheduling Manufacturing Inventory Team A Supervisor Marketing Finance Management Production manager Team B The “whole” system Functional subsystems Production subsystem Manufacturing subsystem Elements
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2 System Concepts and Principles Attributes Systems, subsystems, and elements each have distinguishing characteristics called attributes These describe or express the condition of system, subsystem, or element in qualitative or quantitative terms. In human-made systems, many of the attributes are designed into the system so that the system performs as required. System Concepts and Principles Environment and Boundary The environment refers to anything that influences the behavior or outcome of the system yet lies beyond the decision maker’s or stakeholder’s ability to control The system is separated from its environment by a boundary . The boundary might be somewhat obscure, and it might be difficult to distinguish the system from its environment. System Concepts and Principles
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03~chapter_02 - Chapter 2 Systems Approach and Systems...

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