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test 1 notes 2

test 1 notes 2 - Ss1 Biology to set clicker to correct...

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Ss1 Biology 8/27/08 to set clicker to correct frequency= “GO” “4-1” “GO” Test—40 MC/ TF ch 1-4 What is the science of biology?- o Principles underlying all science All events can be attributed to natural causes Explanations don’t invoke deity Do not specifically exclude deity Natural laws apply at all places and all times People perceive events in similar ways Misconceptions about science o Scientists “prove” things- explanations may change; making new observations o “it is just a theory”- theory- general explanation supported by lots of evidence, gone through experiments. Proven. o Science vs. religion- morals & ethics unable to answer questions. Nature vs supernatural The scientific method o Observation- something unexpected happens- figure out why it happened, what it is. o Hypothesis- explanation- if/then prediction o Experiment- controlled test- challenge prediction o Conclusion- supports or doesn’t support hyp. If it doesn’t, modify hypothesis Scientific experiment o Observation- flied swarm around meat left in the open: maggots appear on meat o Hypothesis- flies produce the maggots; keeping flies away from meat will prevent the appearance of maggots o Experiment- one open jar with meat, one jar with gauze on the top Maggots appeared on open meat, not on closed one o Conclusion- spontaneous creation of maggots does not occur, flies lay eggs Penicillin o Flemming- 1920 Culture dish became contaminated Bacteria wouldn’t grow near penicillium mold Extracted fluid from mold Fluid inhibited bacterial growth Later isolated at penicillin Scientific theories o A general statement about how things operate o Derived through inductive reasoning
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o Has survived through challenges o Never permanent or final “truth” Always provisional Always subject to change or replacement o Used to propose hypothesis (deductive reasoning ) What are the characteristics of living things? o Complex and organized o Must get materials & energy o Homeostasis maintains internal conditions o Growth o Respond to stimuli o Reproduce themselves o Capacity to evolve Characteristics: complex and organized o Salt; organized but simple o Oceans; complex but unorganized o Water flea; organized and complex Levels of biological organization o Figure 1-2 o Most complex- biosphere least complex- subatomic Characteristics: respond to stimuli o Changes in internal environment Temperature Water level Blood sugar level o Changes in external environment Seek food and water Avoid bitterness
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Plants grow toward light Characteristics: homeostasis(George foreman) o Organized systems disintegrate o Preventing disintegration requires energy o Homeostasis means “ staying the same” Sweating when hot, shivering when cold Thirsty when water is low Characteristics: acquire materials and energy(frog) o Homeostasis requires energy Opposes natural trend to disintegrate
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